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Thread: Genetic data show mainly men migrated from the Pontic steppe to Europe 5,000 years ag

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    Genetic data show mainly men migrated from the Pontic steppe to Europe 5,000 years ag

    A new study, looking at the sex-specifically inherited X chromosome of prehistoric human remains, shows that hardly any women took part in the extensive migration from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe approximately 5,000 years ago. The great migration that brought farming practices to Europe 4,000 years earlier, on the other hand, consisted of both women and men. The difference in sex bias suggests that different social and cultural processes drove the two migrations.

    Genetic data suggest that modern European ancestry represents a mosaic of ancestral contributions from multiple waves of prehistoric migration events. Recent studies of genomic variation in prehistoric human remains have demonstrated that two mass migration events are particularly important to understanding European prehistory: the Neolithic spread of agriculture from Anatolia starting around 9,000 years ago, and migration from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe around 5,000 years ago. These migrations are coincident with large social, cultural, and linguistic changes, and each has been inferred to have replaced more than half of the contemporaneous gene pool of resident Central Europeans.

    Dramatic events in human prehistory can be investigated using patterns of genetic variation among the people that lived in those times. In particular, studies of differing female and male demographic histories on the basis of ancient genomes can provide information about complexities of social structures and cultural interactions in prehistoric populations.

    Researchers from Uppsala and Stanford University investigated the genetic ancestry on the sex-specifically inherited X chromosome and the autosomes in 20 early Neolithic and 16 Late Neolithic/Bronze Age human remains. Contrary to previous hypotheses suggesting patrilocality (social system in which a family resides near the man's parents) of many agricultural populations, they found no evidence of sex-biased admixture during the migration that spread farming across Europe during the early Neolithic.

    For later migrations from the Pontic steppe during the early Bronze Age, however, we find a dramatic male bias. There are simply too few X-chromosomes from the migrants, which points to around ten migrating males for every migrating female, says Mattias Jakobsson, professor of Genetics at the Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University.


    Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-02-geneti...teppe.html#jCp

    http://dx.doi.org.sci-hub.cc/10.1073/pnas.1616392114 (Full)
    Last edited by firemonkey; 02-21-2017 at 11:45 PM.
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    In case someone wants to go straight to the study it is at http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/02/17/1616392114

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    Was on bioRxiv as a preprint Sep. 30, 2016.

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    On this too the Scandinavian sagas had something similar to say:
    "The Asas and their sons married the women of the land of which they had taken possession"

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    I just want to point out a theory and see if it seems valid. The Corded Ware did not come from the Yamna the Corded Ware were actually descendants of the Dnieper–Donets who latter got replaced by the Yamna a separate group. Ukraine latter got conquered by an Indo-corded ware culture. The Dnieper-Donets and the Yamna were related however so this is why the data falsely suggests the corded ware are descendants of the Yamna. Both the Yamna and the Dnieper-Donets spoke Indo-European languages which are somewhere between 10,000 to 20,000 years old. At least on the male side no solid evidence supports any idea that the corded ware are descendants of the Yamna and that is a fact.
    Maternal Uncle y-line= F0R1b1-L21

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    Quote Originally Posted by venustas View Post
    I just want to point out a theory and see if it seems valid. The Corded Ware did not come from the Yamna the Corded Ware were actually descendants of the Dnieper–Donets who latter got replaced by the Yamna a separate group. Ukraine latter got conquered by an Indo-corded ware culture. The Dnieper-Donets and the Yamna were related however so this is why the data falsely suggests the corded ware are descendants of the Yamna. Both the Yamna and the Dnieper-Donets spoke Indo-European languages which are somewhere between 10,000 to 20,000 years old. At least on the male side no solid evidence supports any idea that the corded ware are descendants of the Yamna and that is a fact.
    Wow. That's revolutionary. Kind of like a Palaeolithic Continuity Theory, but on the steppe ?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Gravetto-Danubian View Post
    Wow. That's revolutionary. Kind of like a Palaeolithic Continuity Theory, but on the steppe ?
    Not that revolutionary if you look at Anthony's prePIE:
    "The foragers' language might have been part of the broad language family from which Proto-Indo-European later emerged ... The Bug-Dniester culture grew out of Mesolithic forager cultures that
    dwelt in the region since the end of the last Ice Age
    ..."
    https://ia600409.us.archive.org/35/i...20Language.pdf

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    Thousands of horsemen may have swept into Bronze Age Europe, transforming the local population
    By Ann GibbonsFeb. 21, 2017 , 12:00 PM

    Call it an ancient thousand man march. Early Bronze Age men from the vast grasslands of the Eurasian steppe swept into Europe on horseback about 5000 years ago—and may have left most women behind. This mostly male migration may have persisted for several generations, sending men into the arms of European women who interbred with them, and leaving a lasting impact on the genomes of living Europeans.

    “It looks like males migrating in war, with horses and wagons,” says lead author and population geneticist Mattias Jakobsson of Uppsala University in Sweden.

    Europeans are the descendants of at least three major migrations of prehistoric people. First, a group of hunter-gatherers arrived in Europe about 37,000 years ago. Then, farmers began migrating from Anatolia (a region including present-day Turkey) into Europe 9000 years ago, but they initially didn’t intermingle much with the local hunter-gatherers because they brought their own families with them. Finally, 5000 to 4800 years ago, nomadic herders known as the Yamnaya swept into Europe. They were an early Bronze Age culture that came from the grasslands, or steppes, of modern-day Russia and Ukraine, bringing with them metallurgy and animal herding skills and, possibly, Proto-Indo-European, the mysterious ancestral tongue from which all of today’s 400 Indo-European languages spring. They immediately interbred with local Europeans, who were descendants of both the farmers and hunter-gatherers. Within a few hundred years, the Yamnaya contributed to at least half of central Europeans’ genetic ancestry.

    http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/...cal-population
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    Quote Originally Posted by venustas View Post
    I just want to point out a theory and see if it seems valid. The Corded Ware did not come from the Yamna the Corded Ware were actually descendants of the Dnieper–Donets who latter got replaced by the Yamna a separate group. Ukraine latter got conquered by an Indo-corded ware culture. The Dnieper-Donets and the Yamna were related however so this is why the data falsely suggests the corded ware are descendants of the Yamna. Both the Yamna and the Dnieper-Donets spoke Indo-European languages which are somewhere between 10,000 to 20,000 years old. At least on the male side no solid evidence supports any idea that the corded ware are descendants of the Yamna and that is a fact.
    This is a topic that I hope will be clarified by more archaeological data and ancient autosomal DNA. It is difficult to interpret the mtDNA data (because of the slow mutation rate and poor time resolution, and the lack of full sequences for ancient samples), but I've wondered if certain mtDNA subclades are associated with Corded Ware (U5a2a1 and U5a2b) and others with Yamna (certain subclades of U5a1). It might be difficult to map out the cultural history of eastern Europe and the Steppe in the Mesolithic if Mesolithic hunter-gatherers were small, highly mobile groups, but hopefully ancient autosomal DNA will show the relationships of different Neolithic/Bronze Age cultures as they began to expand into central and western Europe. For now, it seems like we are still theory rich and data poor but this could change in the next several years.

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    Quote Originally Posted by venustas View Post
    I just want to point out a theory and see if it seems valid. The Corded Ware did not come from the Yamna the Corded Ware were actually descendants of the Dnieper–Donets who latter got replaced by the Yamna a separate group. Ukraine latter got conquered by an Indo-corded ware culture. The Dnieper-Donets and the Yamna were related however so this is why the data falsely suggests the corded ware are descendants of the Yamna. Both the Yamna and the Dnieper-Donets spoke Indo-European languages which are somewhere between 10,000 to 20,000 years old. At least on the male side no solid evidence supports any idea that the corded ware are descendants of the Yamna and that is a fact.
    I think I know what you mean, but the theory perhaps needs a bit of work. The Dnieper-Donets I culture was of pottery-making foragers. They made the same sort of pottery that first arrived in Europe in the Samara region. We know that the people who made it in Samara carried the autosomal ANE component and they are linked to both R1a and R1b, either there or in descendant cultures. I am fully expecting Y-DNA R1a in Dnieper-Donets I. The Dnieper-Donets II culture seems to be the same people evolving into farmers. We now have an R1a sample from them.

    PIE (the immediate parent of all Indo-European languages) is no older than 4000 BC. Naturally it did not come out of nothing. There was a Pre-PIE language, which we presume the pottery-making foragers spoke. The degree of contact between the various pockets of Pre-PIE speakers in the forest-steppe would determine whether any particular group picked up the latest linguistic innovations of its neighbour groups. Yamnaya was a different economy, which was more mobile and spread its cultural innovations across the steppe. So we can picture them spreading the linguistic innovations too, for example a word for 'wheel'. So by the time people from the forest-steppe pockets started filtering north up the rivers, they would be speaking PIE, not pre-PIE.

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