Page 1 of 89 1231151 ... LastLast
Results 1 to 10 of 886

Thread: The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

  1. #1
    Banned
    Posts
    4,169
    Sex
    Ethnicity
    N/A
    Nationality
    N/A
    Y-DNA (P)
    I2a1-L621- PH 908
    mtDNA (M)
    H 47

    The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    Here it is
    The rain cometh


    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...93.html#access

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000–7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory

  2. The Following 49 Users Say Thank You to Gravetto-Danubian For This Useful Post:

     A Norfolk L-M20 (05-02-2016),  Agamemnon (05-02-2016),  Amerijoe (05-02-2016),  Anabasis (05-02-2016),  Arch (05-17-2016),  Artmar (05-03-2016),  Awale (05-02-2016),  Bas (05-03-2016),  Bernard (05-02-2016),  cpan0256 (10-02-2016),  Darko (05-02-2016),  ffoucart (05-02-2016),  gotten (05-05-2016),  gravetti (05-02-2016),  Hando (05-07-2016),  Ignis90 (05-02-2016),  Il Papà (05-02-2016),  J1 DYS388=13 (05-02-2016),  jdean (05-02-2016),  Jean M (05-02-2016),  JohnHowellsTyrfro (05-03-2016),  Judith (01-17-2017),  Kelso (05-02-2016),  Lank (05-02-2016),  leapfrogger (05-04-2016),  Lugus (05-02-2016),  Megalophias (05-02-2016),  MfA (05-02-2016),  Michał (05-02-2016),  N21163 (05-02-2016),  Net Down G5L (05-02-2016),  nuadha (05-03-2016),  parasar (05-02-2016),  Piquerobi (05-02-2016),  PLogan (05-02-2016),  Pribislav (05-02-2016),  rozenfeld (05-02-2016),  seferhabahir (05-03-2016),  Silesian (05-08-2016),  singingfalls (06-05-2016),  sweuro (05-03-2016),  T101 (05-02-2016),  Táltos (05-02-2016),  Tomenable (05-02-2016),  Tsakhur (05-04-2016),  Varun R (05-02-2016),  Walkman (05-02-2016),  weathershots (05-19-2017)

  3. #2
    Registered Users
    Posts
    2,823
    Sex
    Y-DNA (P)
    R1b-DF27 FGC17112
    mtDNA (M)
    H5a1


  4. The Following 18 Users Say Thank You to Chad Rohlfsen For This Useful Post:

     Artmar (05-03-2016),  Bas (05-03-2016),  ffoucart (05-02-2016),  gotten (05-05-2016),  Gravetto-Danubian (05-02-2016),  Hando (05-07-2016),  Ignis90 (05-02-2016),  kingjohn (05-02-2016),  leapfrogger (05-04-2016),  N21163 (05-02-2016),  Pribislav (05-02-2016),  Saetro (05-03-2016),  singingfalls (06-05-2016),  Táltos (05-02-2016),  Tomenable (05-02-2016),  Varun R (05-02-2016),  Walkman (05-02-2016)

  5. #3
    Registered Users
    Posts
    1,043
    Sex
    Ethnicity
    Kurd
    Y-DNA (P)
    E-M84>Y99171
    mtDNA (M)
    J1b3b

    Ayyubid Dynasty Zand Dynasty Ararat Republic Mahabad Republic Kurdistan Rojavaya Kurdistane


    Last edited by MfA; 05-02-2016 at 03:13 PM.
    E-M84>FGC18389>FGC18413>FGC18401>FGC18422>Y99171 tMRCA 2550ybp

  6. The Following 21 Users Say Thank You to MfA For This Useful Post:

     Arch (05-18-2016),  Artmar (05-03-2016),  Bas (05-03-2016),  ffoucart (05-02-2016),  gotten (05-05-2016),  Gravetto-Danubian (05-02-2016),  Hando (05-08-2016),  Helgenes50 (05-02-2016),  Ignis90 (05-02-2016),  Jean M (05-02-2016),  Kelso (05-02-2016),  kingjohn (05-02-2016),  Lank (05-02-2016),  leapfrogger (05-04-2016),  Megalophias (05-02-2016),  N21163 (05-02-2016),  Pribislav (05-02-2016),  sweuro (05-03-2016),  Tomenable (05-02-2016),  Walkman (05-02-2016),  weathershots (05-19-2017)

  7. #4
    Registered Users
    Posts
    1,043
    Sex
    Ethnicity
    Kurd
    Y-DNA (P)
    E-M84>Y99171
    mtDNA (M)
    J1b3b

    Ayyubid Dynasty Zand Dynasty Ararat Republic Mahabad Republic Kurdistan Rojavaya Kurdistane
    E-M84>FGC18389>FGC18413>FGC18401>FGC18422>Y99171 tMRCA 2550ybp

  8. The Following 23 Users Say Thank You to MfA For This Useful Post:

     Arch (05-17-2016),  Artmar (05-03-2016),  Bas (05-02-2016),  Cascio (05-02-2016),  emmental (05-02-2016),  ffoucart (05-02-2016),  gotten (05-05-2016),  Hando (05-08-2016),  Heber (05-04-2016),  Huijbregts (05-02-2016),  Ignis90 (05-02-2016),  Lank (05-02-2016),  Megalophias (05-02-2016),  Michał (05-02-2016),  MitchellSince1893 (05-02-2016),  N21163 (05-02-2016),  palamede (05-02-2016),  Pribislav (05-02-2016),  sweuro (05-03-2016),  T101 (05-02-2016),  Táltos (05-02-2016),  Trojet (05-02-2016),  Walkman (05-02-2016)

  9. #5
    Banned
    Posts
    4,169
    Sex
    Ethnicity
    N/A
    Nationality
    N/A
    Y-DNA (P)
    I2a1-L621- PH 908
    mtDNA (M)
    H 47

    Wow !

    We assign Kostenki14 to haplogroup C1b, as previously described1 (Table S4.1).

    Ÿ We assign GoyetQ116-1 to C1a.

    Ÿ We assign Vestonice16 to C1a2. Although our data suggests it carries the derived
    allele at an A>G SNP that is characteristic of C1b1a1, we find that it carries the
    ancestral allele at many SNPs that are characteristic of haplogroups upstream of
    C1b1a1 (i.e. C1b, C1b1, C1b1a) (Table S4.2). Thus, this site may be affected by a
    sequencing or database error and we ignore the information from it.

    Ÿ We were surprised to assign Villabruna to R1b1 (Table S4.2). When we restrict to
    damaged sequences, we still assign it to R1b.
    Last edited by Gravetto-Danubian; 05-02-2016 at 04:05 PM.

  10. The Following 16 Users Say Thank You to Gravetto-Danubian For This Useful Post:

     Arch (05-18-2016),  Awale (05-02-2016),  Bas (05-02-2016),  ffoucart (05-02-2016),  Hando (05-08-2016),  Heber (05-04-2016),  Ignis90 (05-02-2016),  Judith (10-05-2016),  Kelso (05-02-2016),  kingjohn (05-02-2016),  Lank (05-02-2016),  parasar (05-02-2016),  Piquerobi (05-02-2016),  Pribislav (05-02-2016),  rozenfeld (05-02-2016),  Walkman (05-02-2016)

  11. #6
    Registered Users
    Posts
    1,043
    Sex
    Ethnicity
    Kurd
    Y-DNA (P)
    E-M84>Y99171
    mtDNA (M)
    J1b3b

    Ayyubid Dynasty Zand Dynasty Ararat Republic Mahabad Republic Kurdistan Rojavaya Kurdistane


    Last edited by MfA; 05-02-2016 at 03:16 PM.
    E-M84>FGC18389>FGC18413>FGC18401>FGC18422>Y99171 tMRCA 2550ybp

  12. The Following 5 Users Say Thank You to MfA For This Useful Post:

     Awale (05-02-2016),  Hando (05-08-2016),  Ignis90 (05-02-2016),  Lank (05-02-2016),  Walkman (05-02-2016)

  13. #7
    Banned
    Posts
    4,169
    Sex
    Ethnicity
    N/A
    Nationality
    N/A
    Y-DNA (P)
    I2a1-L621- PH 908
    mtDNA (M)
    H 47

    Y Haplogroups

    * Kostenki 14: C1b

    * Goyet C1a

    * Cioclivna 1 "CT"

    * Kostenki 12 : CT

    * Vestonice 13: CT

    * Vestonice 15: BT

    * Pavlov 1: I*

    * vestonice 16: C1a2

    * Paglicci 133: *I

    * HohleFels49: I*

    * Goyet Q2: I*

    * Burkhardtshohle: I*

    * Villabruna: R1b1

    * Rochedane: I*

    * Falkenstein: I*

    * CuiryLesChaudardes1: I*

    * Berry Au Bac I*
    Last edited by Gravetto-Danubian; 05-02-2016 at 03:36 PM.

  14. The Following 10 Users Say Thank You to Gravetto-Danubian For This Useful Post:

     A Norfolk L-M20 (05-02-2016),  Arch (05-17-2016),  Awale (05-02-2016),  Hando (05-08-2016),  Ignis90 (05-02-2016),  Kelso (05-02-2016),  kingjohn (05-02-2016),  Pribislav (05-02-2016),  Tomenable (05-02-2016),  Walkman (05-02-2016)

  15. #8
    Gold Class Member
    Posts
    4,498
    Sex
    Ethnicity
    Jewish & British
    Y-DNA (P)
    J-Z18271
    mtDNA (M)
    J1c5
    Y-DNA (M)
    R-U152
    mtDNA (P)
    U7a5

    Israel Israel Jerusalem United Kingdom England Scotland Isle of Man
    Looks like we have R1b in Italy circa 14,000 yBP:

    Villabruna (Sovramonte – Belluno, Italy)
    The burial of Riparo Villabruna was discovered in 1988 by A. Broglio in the small
    rockshelter named Riparo Villabruna A in the Veneto Dolomites. It contains a partial
    skeleton with lower limbs severed at the distal femoral shafts associated with burial goods of
    the Epigravettian culture50. The date quoted here comes from the skull51, whereas the genetic
    analysis is of a left femur. This individual bears the earlier known example of treatment of
    dental caries52.

    • Villabruna at 14,180-13,780 cal BP (KIA-27004: 12,140±7014C)51
    (direct date, using collagen ultrafiltration)

    [...]

    We were surprised to assign Villabruna to R1b1 (Table S4.2). When we restrict to
    damaged sequences, we still assign it to R1b


    [...]

    Based on analysis of statistic like D(X, Y; Villabruna Cluster, Mbuti), we find that
    BerryAuBac, Bichon, Bockstein, Chaudardes1, Falkenstein, Ranchot88, Rochedane, and
    Villabruna all show a high degree of allele sharing with Mesolithic Western Europeans
    including Loschbour and LaBrana1, which are sometimes also called “Western Hunter
    Gatherers”4 (Table S5.6). We view all these samples as closely related, along with
    Hungarian.KO1 which clusters with them despite being from an Early Neolithic context6.
    מכורותיך ומולדותיך מארץ הכנעני אביך האמורי ואמך חתית
    יחזקאל פרק טז ג-


    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

  16. The Following 18 Users Say Thank You to Agamemnon For This Useful Post:

     A Norfolk L-M20 (05-02-2016),  Arch (05-17-2016),  Awale (05-02-2016),  ffoucart (05-02-2016),  gotten (05-05-2016),  Gravetto-Danubian (05-02-2016),  Hando (05-08-2016),  Heber (05-04-2016),  Helgenes50 (05-02-2016),  Ignis90 (05-02-2016),  kingjohn (05-02-2016),  Lank (05-02-2016),  leapfrogger (05-04-2016),  MitchellSince1893 (05-02-2016),  Piquerobi (05-02-2016),  Pribislav (05-02-2016),  Tomenable (05-02-2016),  Walkman (05-02-2016)

  17. #9
    Gold Class Member
    Posts
    8,668

    Quote Originally Posted by Gravetto-Danubian View Post
    What !?

    We assign Kostenki14 to haplogroup C1b, as previously described1 (Table S4.1).

    Ÿ We assign GoyetQ116-1 to C1a.

    Ÿ We assign Vestonice16 to C1a2. Although our data suggests it carries the derived
    allele at an A>G SNP that is characteristic of C1b1a1, we find that it carries the
    ancestral allele at many SNPs that are characteristic of haplogroups upstream of
    C1b1a1 (i.e. C1b, C1b1, C1b1a) (Table S4.2). Thus, this site may be affected by a
    sequencing or database error and we ignore the information from it.

    Ÿ We were surprised to assign Villabruna to R1b1 (Table S4.2). When we restrict to
    damaged sequences, we still assign it to R1b.
    Nice! Definitely M343, likely L278.
    And in Italy!!
    Last edited by parasar; 05-02-2016 at 03:18 PM.

  18. The Following 5 Users Say Thank You to parasar For This Useful Post:

     Anabasis (05-02-2016),  Arch (05-17-2016),  Hando (05-08-2016),  nuadha (05-03-2016),  Tomenable (05-02-2016)

  19. #10
    Gold Class Member
    Posts
    4,498
    Sex
    Ethnicity
    Jewish & British
    Y-DNA (P)
    J-Z18271
    mtDNA (M)
    J1c5
    Y-DNA (M)
    R-U152
    mtDNA (P)
    U7a5

    Israel Israel Jerusalem United Kingdom England Scotland Isle of Man
    More interesting stuff from the supplemental data:

    Gene flow linking the Villabruna Cluster and the Near East

    We investigated the relationship between pre-Neolithic Europeans and present-day as well as ancient populations using statistics of the form: D(European1, European2; Test, Mbuti). Here, the Test populations are Native Americans, East Asians, Oceanians and Near Eastern populations from the Simons Genome Diversity Project (SGDP) panel.

    Affinities of pre-Neolithic Europeans to the Near East

    When neither of the two pre-Neolithic Europeans analysed in the statistic is in the Villabruna
    Cluster—that is, both are older than about 14,000 BP—they tend to be symmetrically related
    to populations outside Europe including present-day and ancient Near Easterners. However,
    when one lived prior to the Villabruna Cluster (e.g. Vestonice16, ElMiron, Kostenki14,
    KremsWA3, and GoyetQ116-1) and the other is in the Villabruna Cluster (e.g. BerryAuBac,
    Bichon, CuiryLesChaudardes1, Falkenstein, Hungarian.KO1, LaBrana1, Loschbour,
    Ranchot88, Rochedane and Villabruna), there is a distinct attraction of the Villabruna Cluster
    samples to Near Eastern populations (Figure 4b; Extended Data Figure 3). Table S11.1 shows
    the statistics when the Near Eastern population is Iraqi_Jew.

    There are several possible explanations for these findings. One is gene flow between
    relatives of Near Easterners and pre-Neolithic Europeans after ~14,000 years ago, beginning
    with the Villabruna Cluster. A second is population substructure in Europe. In this scenario,
    after post-glacial re-peopling of Europe, the balance of ancestry could have shifted toward
    populations that were more closely related to Near Easterners. In either case, however, major
    population turnovers must have occurred.
    The affinity of pre-Neolithic Europeans to Near Easterners beginning around 14,000
    years ago is distinct from the affinity to East Asians in Mesolithic Europeans
    Seguin-Orlando et al.1 documented that statistics of the form D(Kostenki14; Mesolithic
    Europeans; East Asians, Outgroup) are significantly less than 0. In Supplementary
    Information section 8, we show that this is likely due to gene flow between the ancestors of
    East Asians and the ancestors of Mesolithic Europeans. These patterns are evident in Figure
    4b and Extended Data Figure 3, which show that a subset of Villabruna Cluster samples
    including Mesolithic Europeans show a significant affinity to East Asians. This pattern does
    not go hand-in-hand with the affinity to the Near East that is present in all Villabruna Cluster
    samples, and thus the two signals must therefore reflect at least two distinct historical events.


    [...]

    The Satsurblia and Villabruna Clusters are not particularly closely related

    What is the nature of the West Eurasian genetic affinities in the Satsurblia Cluster samples?
    We observe significantly positive statistics of the form D(Villabruna Cluster, Early Upper
    Palaeolithic Europeans; Satsurblia Cluster, Mbuti), showing that Satsurblia Cluster samples
    share more alleles with Villabruna Cluster samples—for example, Villabruna, Bichon,
    Loschbour, LaBrana1, and Hungarian.KO1—than with Early Upper Palaeolithic Europeans
    (Kostenki14, GoyetQ116-1, Vestonice16 and ElMiron) (Table S12.2). This suggests the
    possibility that a component of the non-Basal Eurasian ancestry in the Satsurblia Cluster may
    be related to the ancestry that appears in our European sample series with the Villabruna
    Cluster. In other words, migrations involving populations related to the Satsurblia Cluster
    could be responsible for the genetic link between the Near East and the Villabruna Cluster
    (Supplementary Information section 11).

    It is important to emphasize, first of all, that Satsurblia Cluster can not be the direct source of
    the Near Eastern affinity that appears in our European sample series from Villabruna onward
    (Figure 4b), as Satsurblia Cluster samples have substantial Basal Eurasian ancestry, whereas
    Villabruna Cluster samples do not (Supplementary Information section 8).

    To explore the relationship between the non-Basal Eurasian ancestry in the Satsurblia cluster
    and the Near Eastern related ancestry in the Villabruna Cluster in more detail, we fit
    Satsurblia into the Admixture Graph of Supplementary Information section 6 that includes
    Mbuti, UstIshim, Malta1, GoyetQ116-1, Kostenki14, Vestonice16, and ElMiron (Figure S6.3).
    In all fitting models, Satsurblia is inferred to harbor ~32% ancestry from a Basal Eurasian
    lineage that branched before UstIshim (Extended Data Figure 4). These results are consistent
    with the finding that Satsurblia Cluster samples have Basal Eurasian ancestry1, while also
    rejecting the previous model in which Satsurblia is of entirely Basal Eurasian ancestry1. Our
    fitted model specifies that the majority of ancestry in Satsurblia is from a West Eurasian,
    lineage providing an explanation both for why Satsurblia has Basal Eurasian ancestry, while
    at the same time sharing alleles with all Europeans beginning with Kostenki14.

    All three of the best fitting models in Extended Data Figure 4 specify that the majority
    ancestry component in Satsurblia branched very deeply in the tree of West Eurasian
    populations, forming a clade with Malta1. Further evidence for a deep connection to Malta1
    and populations with admixture of Malta1-related ancestry comes from the observation in
    Table S12.2 that D(Motala12/Malta1, Early Upper Palaeolithic Europeans; Satsurblia
    Cluster, Mbuti) is significantly positive. In a simple model of this type, a prediction is that
    statistics of the form D(Villabruna Cluster, Early Upper Palaeolithic Europeans; Malta
    Cluster, Mbuti), would be significantly positive, as Malta1 would share more alleles with
    Villabruna Cluster samples than with Early Upper Palaeolithic Europeans. However, we do
    not detect any such a signal (Supplementary Information section 9).

    Regardless of whether a population closely related to Satsurblia is responsible for the affinity
    of Villabruna Cluster samples to the Near East, there is evidence that a new lineage with
    affinities to present-day Near Easterners spread across Europe at this time. The evidence for
    this spread is that the genetic affinity of pre-Neolithic Europeans to Near Easterners abruptly
    increases with the appearance Villabruna Cluster, with no earlier European sample showing
    as strong an affinity despite sharing large amounts of genetic drift with the Villabruna Cluster
    (Figure 4b). An important direction for future work is to analyse more ancient DNA samples
    from southeastern Europe and western Asia in order to understand the history of the
    migratory events that our data show must have occurred around this time.
    Last edited by Agamemnon; 05-02-2016 at 03:21 PM.
    מכורותיך ומולדותיך מארץ הכנעני אביך האמורי ואמך חתית
    יחזקאל פרק טז ג-


    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

  20. The Following 11 Users Say Thank You to Agamemnon For This Useful Post:

     Anabasis (05-04-2016),  Arch (05-18-2016),  Awale (05-02-2016),  ffoucart (05-02-2016),  Hando (05-10-2016),  Ignis90 (05-02-2016),  kingjohn (05-02-2016),  Lank (05-02-2016),  Megalophias (05-02-2016),  parasar (05-02-2016),  Tomenable (05-02-2016)

Page 1 of 89 1231151 ... LastLast

Similar Threads

  1. The Genetic History of Northern Europe
    By Pribislav in forum Ancient (aDNA)
    Replies: 115
    Last Post: 08-09-2021, 04:30 PM
  2. Replies: 6
    Last Post: 02-21-2018, 10:03 PM
  3. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe
    By gravetti in forum General
    Replies: 3
    Last Post: 05-28-2017, 01:21 AM
  4. Replies: 39
    Last Post: 07-21-2014, 02:29 PM

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •