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Thread: Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlant

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    Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlant

    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/12/22/1518445113

    Lara M. Cassidy, Rui Martiniano, Eileen M. Murphy, Matthew D. Teasdale, James Mallory, Barrie Hartwell and Daniel G. Bradley

    Abstract

    The Neolithic and Bronze Age transitions were profound cultural shifts catalyzed in parts of Europe by migrations, first of early farmers from the Near East and then Bronze Age herders from the Pontic Steppe. However, a decades-long, unresolved controversy is whether population change or cultural adoption occurred at the Atlantic edge, within the British Isles. We address this issue by using the first whole genome data from prehistoric Irish individuals. A Neolithic woman (3343–3020 cal BC) from a megalithic burial (10.3× coverage) possessed a genome of predominantly Near Eastern origin. She had some hunter–gatherer ancestry but belonged to a population of large effective size, suggesting a substantial influx of early farmers to the island. Three Bronze Age individuals from Rathlin Island (2026–1534 cal BC), including one high coverage (10.5×) genome, showed substantial Steppe genetic heritage indicating that the European population upheavals of the third millennium manifested all of the way from southern Siberia to the western ocean. This turnover invites the possibility of accompanying introduction of Indo-European, perhaps early Celtic, language. Irish Bronze Age haplotypic similarity is strongest within modern Irish, Scottish, and Welsh populations, and several important genetic variants that today show maximal or very high frequencies in Ireland appear at this horizon. These include those coding for lactase persistence, blue eye color, Y chromosome R1b haplotypes, and the hemochromatosis C282Y allele; to our knowledge, the first detection of a known Mendelian disease variant in prehistory. These findings together suggest the establishment of central attributes of the Irish genome 4,000 y ago.
    Last edited by rozenfeld; 12-28-2015 at 08:17 PM.

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    Excellent !
    We have a terminus ante quem for steppic arrival in Britain

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    Both Bronze age guys had "Lactose Tolerance" mutation.

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    Irish Times: http://www.irishtimes.com/news/healt...eals-1.2478780
    Ancient Irish had Middle Eastern ancestry, study reveals
    Genetic researchers find evidence of mass migration to Ireland thousands of years ago

    Evidence of massive migration to Ireland thousands of years ago has emerged from the sequencing of the first genomes from ancient Irish humans, carried out by geneticists from Trinity College Dublin and archaeologists from Queen’s University Belfast.

    Sequencing the genome of an early woman farmer, who lived near Belfast 5,200 years ago, showed her majority ancestry originated in the Middle East, where agriculture was invented.

    Sequencing the genomes of three men whose bodies dated from the Bronze Age about 4,000 years ago showed one-third of their ancestry came from the Pontic steppe on the shores of the Black Sea.

    The woman farmer had black hair, brown eyes and resembled southern Europeans, according to the researchers.
    ReconstructionNeolithicFarmerIreland.jpg

    In contrast, the three men, who were from Rathlin Island, had the most common Irish Y chromosome type, blue eyes alleles and the most important variant for the genetic disease haemochromatosis, or excessive iron retention. The latter mutation is so frequent in people of Irish descent that it is sometimes referred to as a Celtic disease...

    The information buried in the genes of ancient bodies is already answering pivotal questions about the origins of Ireland’s people and contemporary cultures, according to the study, published in the international journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

    “There was a great wave of genome change that swept into Europe, from above the Black Sea into Bronze Age Europe, and we now know it washed all the way to the shores of its most westerly island,” said professor of population genetics in Trinity College Dublin, Dan Bradley, who led the study.

    “And this degree of genetic change invites the possibility of other associated changes, perhaps even the introduction of language ancestral to western Celtic tongues.”
    Last edited by Jean M; 12-28-2015 at 08:47 PM.

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    The three Rathlin men are R1b-L21 and one (Rathlin1) is R1b-DF21.

    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/12/22/1518445113

    PCA Analysis

    Attachment 7096

    mtDNA Analysis

    Attachment 7097

    Y Analysis

    Attachment 7098
    Last edited by Heber; 12-28-2015 at 09:10 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Gravetto-Danubian View Post
    Excellent !
    We have a terminus ante quem for steppic arrival in Britain
    Ireland ≠ Britain
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dubhthach View Post
    Ireland ≠ Britain
    Pretty much.

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    I'd be curious how these remains plot against the Iron age remains from Eastern England, the presence of DF21 in both sites is interesting. It also gives us a minimum age for DF21 (and thus DF13 and L21)
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