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Thread: David Reich lecture 9 February 2015

  1. #1
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    David Reich lecture 9 February 2015

    Here I am folks, back from the lecture. I was chastised for taking photos of PCAs and therefore cannot post them.

    The forthcoming paper: Massive migration from the steppe is a source of Indo-European languages.

    Prof Reich was unequivocal. The claim that IE languages spread with the first farmers was based on the idea that there was only one major migration into Europe after the first Homo sapiens arrivals and it happened in the Neolithic. That idea has been falsified. Two major genetic discontinuities can be seen in ancient DNA:
    1. The first farmers, who represent 60% - 100% replacement.
    2. 2500 BC steppe pastoralists, who represent 60% - 80% replacement.
    In both cases there was a subsequent resurgence of previous ancestry.

    His data: genome-wide DNA from 94 samples, most of which have already been published to some degree i.e. not necessarily genome-wide:
    Saxony (the huge project from which Brandt et al 2013 published mtDNA)
    Spain - I wasn't fast enough to note these samples, but some are published. Some are BB.
    Hungary (previously published)
    Samara - the new data already mentioned in previous lectures.

    Modern Europeans:

    WHF 0-50%
    EEF 32% - 93%
    ANE 1-18%

    Details follow.

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    Jean,

    Thanks!
    100% replacement - where?

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    Did he say anything about Y DNA? What about steppe ancestry in modern Europeans?

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    If you photos, of PCAs, etc. can you describe and or draw them.

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    Interesting, BBs from Spain too, very important.

    Surely some more estimates for the genetic make-up of the steppe pastoralists can be made with the upper and lower bound values for the level of replacement and modern values for WHG-ANE-EEF. Been done already on the Eurogenes comments threads but perhaps a better estimate can be made now?

    So perhaps the variation in WHG in modern Europe is due to more farmer replacement but less IE replacement in the south, and the opposite in the north? Would have to be more IE replacement in the north and east due to higher ANE at least.

    I'm guessing those estimates are based on different geographical locations.
    Y-DNA: I1* (Ware, Hertfordshire)
    MT-DNA: U5a1b4 (Boughton Aluph, Kent)
    Father's MT-DNA: J1c8 (Wolverhampton, Staffordshire)
    Grandfather's MT-DNA: H1b (Littlehampton, Sussex)

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    Details:

    Mesolithic samples are similar across Europe. (He means those of which he has samples, which does not include Greece it seems.) Added: note that this evidently referred to WHG.

    Early farmer samples are remarkably similar across Europe, whether from Cardial Ware or LBK. (I expect that includes his Hungarian samples, though not specifically mentioned.)

    The resurgence of WHG he had dated 5000-3000 BC in one slide. He said that it is not clear whether this reflects some population movement or greater mixing with local hunter-gatherers in the Late Neolithic than had happened in the Early Neolithic, [added the latter of] which was possible in Northern Germany, as the hunter-gatherer lifestyle survived to the north in Scandinavia.

    Yamnaya are a mixture of ANE [CORRECTION EHG] and a population of Near Eastern origin which arrived in Europe via a different route than the early farmers. In fact he said they did not come via Europe. I assume that he means they were not simply EEF, but he did not give any details or mention that they were ANE-rich [added, though we know the latter from Nick Patterson. He speculated that they could have come from the Caucasus.

    As we already knew, Reich's team has found a discontinuity between the TRB and Corded Ware. As previously reported, he said that CW samples were 75% Yamnaya, which he qualified as descended from a Yamnaya-like population. ANE linked to R1a and R1b. ANE in Bell Beaker samples at a lower level than in CW. The proportions of the three components (WHG, EEF and ANE) were different in the Iberian BB from that in Germany.

    In questions on autosomal traits, it emerged that:
    • Yamnaya were genetically taller than the previous populations.
    • Lactase Persistence was absent in the Early Neolithic, slight in the Late Neolithic and then rose significantly 4000 BC. ADDED - or could that have been 4000 years ago?
    Last edited by Jean M; 02-10-2015 at 02:09 PM.

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    As I know people are keen on knowing ANE proportions in modern Europeans, I tried to note as much of the list he had as I could (though it may not be new), but did not get it all. Highest to lowest, it started:
    Norway
    Lithuania
    Estonia
    Iceland
    Scotland
    Czech Rep.
    Belarus
    Hungary
    Ukraine
    England
    Croatia

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    Mesolithic samples are similar across Europe. (He means those of which he has samples, which does not include Greece it seems.)

    Early farmer samples are remarkably similar across Europe, whether from Cardial Ware or LBK. (I expect that includes his Hungarian samples, though not specifically mentioned.)

    The resurgence of WHG he had dated 5000-3000 BC in one slide. He said that it is not clear whether this reflects some population movement or greater mixing with local hunter-gatherers in the Late Neolithic than had happened in the Early Neolithic, which was possible in Northern Germany, as the hunter-gatherer lifestyle survived to the north in Scandinavia.

    Yamnaya are a mixture of ANE and a population of Near Eastern origin which arrived in Europe via a different route than the early farmers. In fact he said they did not come via Europe. I assume that he means they were not simply EEF, but he did not give any details or mention that they were ANE-rich. He speculated that they could have come from the Caucasus.

    As we already knew, Reich's team has found a discontinuity between the TRB and Corded Ware. As previously reported, he said that CW samples were 75% Yamnaya, which he qualified as descended from a Yamnaya-like population. ANE linked to R1a and R1b. ANE in Bell Beaker samples at a lower level than in CW. The proportions of the three components (WHG, EEF and ANE) were different in the Iberian BB from that in Germany.

    In questions on autosomal traits, it emerged that:
    • Yamnaya were genetically taller than the previous populations.
    • Lactase Persistence was absent in the Early Neolithic, slight in the Late Neolithic and then rose significantly 4000 BC.
    No surprise German and Iberian BB were differnt. Did he say Iberian BB had any ANE? Did they have R1b to?

    Did Reich specifically say R1a and R1b are linked to ANE?

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    What is the time period of the Iberian beakers?

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    Jean,

    Thanks!
    100% replacement - where?
    He did not say.

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