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Thread: Lexical Comparison of vernacular Syriac ("Sureth"), Akkadian, and other languages

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    Lexical Comparison of vernacular Syriac ("Sureth"), Akkadian, and other languages

    I have been adding to a thread on another forum for several weeks, on this topic. I plan to consolidate the data, after I have had an opportunity to view all entries (several thousand) contained in the 21 volumes of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary. Since some Sureth dialects remain relatively undocumented, there is a chance, I believe, to identify words of Akkadian, Sumerian, and/or other origin, not previously identified.

    Although similar, the vernacular, "Sureth," is not a direct descendant of the liturgical Syriac. Please see Dr. Geoffrey Khan's work on the dialects, for further information.

    Sources for this post:

    Sureth Online Dictionary
    Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD)

    Diacritical marks for Akkadian do not appear. Please refer to the relevant entry, or entries, in the CAD.

    Please remember, this is only an exercise by an amateur, and not meant to be taken too seriously.


    SURETH
    Eastern phonetic : a: ' lo la:
    [City]
    English : a street , a thoroughfare in a city / town / village
    Dialect : Urmiah

    Eastern phonetic : ' šu: la:
    [Industry]
    English : 1) a job , an occasional piece of work , an occupation , an employment , a task , a labour / labor a definite work undertaken in gross / things to do , a mission (?) / a project (?) / duty (?) ; 2) an affair , a business / business , a trade , commerce (?) , a shop (?)
    Dialect : Urmiah

    AKKADIAN
    sulu {sula'u, shulu, sullu} s.;
    1. street, track, 2. (uncertain meaning)
    from Old Babylonian on; Sumerian loanword

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    Sources for this post:

    Sureth Online Dictionary
    Chicago Assyrian Dictionary (CAD)

    Diacritical marks for Akkadian do not appear. Please refer to the relevant entry, or entries, in the CAD.

    Please remember, this is only an exercise by an amateur, and not meant to be taken too seriously.


    SURETH
    Eastern phonetic : ' ša ri ' šu: ri
    [Moral life → Conscience]
    English : false motives , looking for or creating a pretext for offensive purposes , a pretence (?) / pretense (?) , an ulterior motive (?) ;
    Dialect : Urmiah

    AKKADIAN
    1
    sharsharranu s.; rebel; Neo-Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian

    shar-shar-a-ni annuti ussadbibuka ussesunikka iltibuka now these rebels have plotted against you, have driven you out, have surrounded you (oracle for Esarhaddon); pahhuzu u sha-ar-sha-ra-nu shu shu u abbeshu PN is a rascal and a rebel, he and all his ancestors (Neo-Babylonian)

    2
    sharu A s.; 5. emptiness, nothingness, vanity, lies, falsehoods; from Old Akkadian on

    3
    sharu adj.; hostile, inimical; El-Amarna, Ras Shamra (?) [Ugarit]; West Semitic (?) word

    4
    shurshurru B s.; (a knife or part of a knife); Old Akkadian (Akkadian loanword in Sumerian)

    5
    shu'ru (shuhru, shuru) s.; eyebrow; Old Babylonian, Standard Babylonian
    Last edited by Humanist; 09-07-2012 at 10:21 PM.

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    More from Dr. Brock, and the possible origin for our word "kjana."

    THE 'NESTORIAN' CHURCH: A LAMENTABLE MISNOMER
    S.P. BROCK
    THE ORIENTAL INSTITUTE, UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

    According to a very widespread understanding of church history the christological controversies of the fifth century were brought to a happy conclusion with the Definition of Faith issued at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. This definition was accepted as normative by both Greek East and Latin West (and hence, subsequently, by the various Reformed churches of the West). Only a few obstinate Orientals (so this conventional picture would have it) refused to accept the Council's Definition of Faith, whether it be out of ignorance, stupidity, stubbornness, or even separatist nationalist aspirations: these people were, on the one side of the theological spectrum, the Nestorians, and at the other end, the Monophysites - heretics both, the former rejecting the Council of Ephesus (431) and believing in two persons in the incarnate Christ, the latter rejecting the Council of Chalcedon and holding that Christ's human nature was swallowed up by the divine nature.

    ....

    As will become apparent below, there were different understandings, not only of the term qnoma, but also of the term 'nature' (Greek physis, Syriac kyana).
    SURETH
    'kianaia (fem: 'kianéta)
    [Nature]
    English : masculine : natural , normal , artist: professional, innate (?) / naturally talented (?) , inborn (?) , ingrained (?) , immanent (?) , hard-wired (?) ; grammar : ܫܡܵܐ ܟܝܵܢܵܝܵܐ : a common noun , a substantive
    Dialect : Classical Syriac

    'kiana
    [Nature]
    English : 1) nature , the creative force , the source and essence of life , the instinct , the natural disposition , the character ; 2) substance , the makeup / the composition / constitution ; ܒܲܪ ܟܝܵܢܵܐ ܕ : of one substance with , consubstantial with ; 3) Lishani : origin , sex / kind (?)
    Dialect : Classical Syriac

    'kianaith
    [Nature]
    English : naturally , by nature , inherently , innately , congenitally
    Dialect : Classical Syriac

    'kion
    [Sky → Astronomy]
    English : Saturn , the planet Saturn
    Dialect : Urmiah


    AKKADIAN (diacritical marks do not appear)
    kajanu (fem. kajantu, kajattu) adj. ; normal, plain, permanent, constant, regular, from Old Assyrian, Old Babylonian on.

    kajana (kajanam, kajanu) adv.; always, constantly, regularly, from Middle Babylonian on.

    kajan adv.; always, constantly; Standard Babylonian.

    kajamanu (fem. kajamantu) adj.; normal, regular, usual, steady (also a name of Saturn); Old Babylonian, Middle Babylonian, Boghazköy, Standard Babylonian, Neo-Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian, Akkadogram in Hittite.

    Syriac/Sureth source: Sureth Online Dictionary
    Akkadian source: Chicago Assyrian Dictionary

    And, from Wikipedia (bold by me):

    [Saturn] In culture
    Saturn in astrology is the ruling planet of Capricorn and, traditionally, Aquarius.

    Saturn, the Bringer of Old Age is a movement in Gustav Holst's The Planets.

    The Saturn family of rockets were developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.
    [125] Originally proposed as a military satellite launcher, they were adopted as the launch vehicles for the Apollo program.

    The day Saturday is named after the planet Saturn, which is derived from the Roman god of agriculture, Saturn (linked to the Greek god Cronus).[126][127]

    Capricorn
    Zodiac Symbol sea-goat
    Duration (Tropical, Western) 21 December – 20 January (2013, UTC)
    Constellation Capricornus
    Zodiac Element Earth
    Zodiac Quality Cardinal
    Sign ruler Saturn
    Detriment Moon
    Exaltation Mars
    Fall Jupiter
    Aquarius
    Zodiac Symbol Water-Carrier
    Duration (Tropical, Western) 20 January – 18 February (2013, UTC)
    Constellation Aquarius
    Zodiac Element Air
    Zodiac Quality Fixed
    Sign ruler Saturn. Uranus
    Detriment Sun
    Exaltation Saturn and Uranus
    Fall No planet

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    The thread on the other forum is now gone, unfortunately. And so are hundreds of comparisons. But, perhaps I can continue here.

    SURETH
    'nibra
    [Animals → Birds]
    English : 1) a (cock / rooster) spur ; 2) a hooked claw , a hook ; 3) a (horseman's) spur ; 4) (anything that projects like / suggests a spur - a galley ram , a cutwater, a rocky outcrop, a branch trimmed short.
    Dialect : Urmiah

    WARNING - Some may find the below image a bit disturbing. An example of a cockspur.

     


    AKKADIAN (diacritical marks do not appear)
    nabru s.; (a word for hand or wing) syn. list

    The above word, "nabru," makes reference to this word:

    kappu A (agappu, gappu) s.; 1. wing, quill, plumage, frond, 2. arm, hand, list, 3. lobe of the lung, side part of a horse bit, armrest, 4. in kappi ini the region of the eyebrow, the eyelid and the eyelashes; from Old Babylonian on; gappu and agappu in Neo-Assyrian.

    nabru : s.; (part of a plow) lex.


    Sureth source: Sureth Online Dictionary
    Akkadian source: Chicago Assyrian Dictionary
    Last edited by Humanist; 02-11-2013 at 08:12 PM.

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    Zecharia Sitchin was Azerbaijani Jewish, I believe. Any connection to his interpretations?

    Wikipedia

    According to Sitchin's interpretation of Mesopotamian iconography and symbology, outlined in his 1976 book The 12th Planet and its sequels, there is an undiscovered planet beyond Neptune that follows a long, elliptical orbit, reaching the inner solar system roughly every 3,600 years. This planet is called Nibiru (although Jupiter was the planet associated with the god Marduk in Babylonian cosmology).[5] According to Sitchin, Nibiru (whose name was replaced with MARDUK in original legends by the Babylonian ruler of the same name in an attempt to co-opt the creation for himself, leading to some confusion among readers) collided catastrophically with Tiamat (a goddess in the Babylonian creation myth the Enûma Eliš), which he considers to be another planet once located between Mars and Jupiter. This collision supposedly formed the planet Earth, the asteroid belt, and the comets. Sitchin states that when struck by one of planet Nibiru's moons, Tiamat split in two, and then on a second pass Nibiru itself struck the broken fragments and one half of Tiamat became the asteroid belt. The second half, struck again by one of Nibiru's moons, was pushed into a new orbit and became today's planet Earth.

    220px-ZECHARIA_SITCHIN.jpg

    SURETH
    'npara
    [Moral life → Conscience]
    English : (transitive verb) 1) : to shun, to avoid, to evade, to eschew, to sidestep / to bypass, to give a wide berth, to fight shy of, to keep clear of, to turn away from; 2) to snort
    Dialect : Urmiah [West Azerbaijan Province, Iran]

    give someone or something a wide berth

    Fig. to keep a reasonable distance from someone or something; to steer clear (of someone or something). (Originally referred to sailing ships.) The dog we are approaching is very mean. Better give it a wide berth. Give Mary a wide berth. She's in a very bad mood.

    http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/give+a+wide+berth


    AKKADIAN (diacritical marks do not appear)
    neberu (nebaru, neperu) s.; 1. ferry, ford, crossing, 2. ferryboat, ferrying, 3. (one of the names of the planet Jupiter); from Old Assyrian, Old Babylonian on

    Wikipedia on Jupiter

    Along with the Sun, the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane (Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt), the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly caused by Jupiter, and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner Solar System's history.[110]

    Along with its moons, Jupiter's gravitational field controls numerous asteroids that have settled into the regions of the Lagrangian points preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the sun. These are known as the Trojan asteroids, and are divided into Greek and Trojan "camps" to commemorate the Iliad. The first of these, 588 Achilles, was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906; since then more than two thousand have been discovered.[111] The largest is 624 Hektor.

    Most short-period comets belong to the Jupiter family—defined as comets with semi-major axes smaller than Jupiter's. Jupiter family comets are believed to form in the Kuiper belt outside the orbit of Neptune. During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter.[112]
    The giant planet Jupiter, which has more than two and a half times the mass of all the other planets of the Solar System put together


    Sureth source: Sureth Online Dictionary
    Akkadian source: Chicago Assyrian Dictionary

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    SURETH
    'kalak
    [Transport → Sea]
    English :1) a raft of inflated sheepskins ; ܐܵܣܸܪ ܟܵܠܵܟ : to make a raft ; 2) Oraham : a collection of logs (or timber) fastened together either for support or for their conveyance , a float ; 3) Oraham : bulk , a lump

    AKKADIAN (diacritical marks do not appear)
    kalakku A s.; 1. excavation, (as a geometrical term) truncated pyramid, 2. store-house, silo, 3. (a container, a box, a vessel), 4. (a specific kind of chair), 5. raft (kelek); from Old Babylonian on; Sumerian loanword.

    5. raft (kelek): "naru da'na la ana KUS maskere karare illaka la ana KUS ka-la-ke" ("the river is dangerous, is navigable neither with inflated skins nor with keleks") ABL 312:12 (NA)

    Assyrian and Babylonian letter 312 (ABL 312) is mentioned in this Simo Parpola book: Letters from Assyrian Scholars to the Kings Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, Vol. 2 (2007)

    An example of a "kelek."



    Sureth source: Sureth Online Dictionary
    Akkadian source: Chicago Assyrian Dictionary
    Last edited by Humanist; 02-12-2013 at 08:50 PM.

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    Interesting; any etymological connection whatsoever with the word "kayak"? Seems somewhat curious the two sound similar and have a similar meaning (vessel of the sea).

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    Quote Originally Posted by DMXX View Post
    Interesting; any etymological connection whatsoever with the word "kayak"? Seems somewhat curious the two sound similar and have a similar meaning (vessel of the sea).
    Interesting question. Not sure. But, I should note that a form of the word (perhaps not necessarily meaning "raft") occurs in the inscriptions of Darius I. Perhaps the word was transmitted by the Persians to the west, and eventually became "kayak?" However, see below. From "interesting," to very interesting. The word is from Sumerian, according to the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary.

    From etymonline.

    kayak (n.)
    1757, from Danish kajak, from Greenland Eskimo qayaq, literally "small boat of skins." The verb is attested from 1875, from the noun.
    umiak (n.)
    "large Eskimo boat," c.1743, from Eskimo umiaq "an open skin boat." Said by 18c.-19c. sources to be a "woman's boat," as opposed to the kayak, which was worked exclusively by men.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Humanist View Post
    Interesting question. Not sure. But, I should note that a form of the word (perhaps not necessarily meaning "raft") occurs in the inscriptions of Darius I. Perhaps the word was transmitted by the Persians to the west, and eventually became "kayak?" However, see below. From "interesting," to very interesting. The word is from Sumerian, according to the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary.

    From etymonline.
    If the word is Sumerian in origin, it's very possible the ancient Persians absorbed it (as well as many other native words from Mesopotamia) and acted as a vector for its' spread further west. Although I'm uncertain whether a similar word also exists in other Iranian languages. If not, it'd support the Persians acquiring it from Sumerian, Sureth or Akkadian.

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    I am pretty sure that kayak is an Inuktitut (Inuit-language word), as Humanist mentions, but I also remember hearing that there is a similar Turkish work (something like kayiq?) which could potentially have come from Semitic languages.


    Then again, there's mtDNA X all over the place, so who knows!
    R1a1a and Subclades Project
    Ashkenazi-Levite Project

    Other ancestral Y lines:

    E1b-V13 England
    I1-M253 Ireland
    I2-M423 Ukraine
    R1a-L176.1 Scotland
    R1b-L584 Syria/Turkey
    R1b-L20 Ireland
    R1b-L21 (1)England; (2)Wales?>Connecticut
    R1b-L48 England
    R1b-P312 Scotland

    Other ancestral mtDNA lines:

    H1b2 Ukraine
    H6a1a3 Ukraine
    K1a9 Belarus
    K1c2 Ireland

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