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Thread: AncestryDNA breakdown of SSA for African Americans & other Afrodescendants

  1. #11
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    Very cool survey done by Ancestry.com!

    A Genetic Census of America

    Using AncestryDNA results from over a quarter million people, the AncestryDNA science team set out to perform a “genetic census” of the United States: a survey of the U.S. using only DNA. Where did the ancestors of today’s Americans come from? Do Americans in the Midwest hail from similar places of the world as in the Northeast, or as in the South?

    - See more at: http://blogs.ancestry.com/ancestry/2....rVYxosg5.dpuf
    If you follow the link you can select each one of the 26 regions used by AncestryDNA and see the average score for each state. Interesting to compare with my own findings sofar which were of course based on a way smaller sample size . Then again Aframs in this survey aren't separated from people with other ethnic backgrounds and they only considered birth place and not deep rooted ancestry from 1 single state/area.

    I made some screenshots to see where each African category had its highest score. All things being the same you would expect this to be the state with the highest % of Aframs. Which would be Mississippi.

    By 2010 census results

    Rank State African-American Alone
    Population (2010)[1] % African-American
    1 Mississippi 1,074,200 37.30%
    2 Louisiana 1,452,396 31.98%
    3 Georgia 2,950,435 30.02%
    4 Maryland 1,700,298 29.44%
    5 South Carolina 1,290,684 28.48%
    6 Alabama 1,251,311 26.38%
    7 North Carolina 2,048,628 21.60%
    8 Delaware 191,814 20.95%
    9 Virginia 1,551,399 19.91%
    10 Tennessee 1,055,689 16.78%

    This is however NOT the case for Mali, Senegal and SE Bantu. Despite having a lower % of Aframs than Mississippi South Carolina still scores more for it. So i suppose this confirms that the Carolina's have higher than average Senegambian ancestry and also Congolese/Angolan (which was already known from historical references).









    For the other categories it was indeed as expected Mississippi with the highest %'s.













    Interestingly Cameroon-Congo had a higher average than Nigeria, unlike my findings sofar. However if you look at Virginia they have higher Nigeria than Cameroon-Congo. Confirming the strong Igbo presence?



    Last edited by Don Felipe; 04-18-2014 at 12:06 PM.

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  3. #12
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    Results of an Egyptian, mostly West Asian with only minor SSA which comes out as SE Bantu but might as well be East African i suppose because there's no separate category for that. Also interestingly only minor North African, i guess it means the North African category on AncestryDNA is more strictly Maghrebi than on 23andme where even Saudi samples are being used to define their "North African" category...






    Horner results, most likely Somali



    SSA part is being labeled SE Bantu, again because of lack of more fitting categories. Also interesting that West Asian > North African. Before they did their update it used to be the opposite on 23andme for Horners if i'm not mistaken.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Mehrdad View Post
    Thank you for sharing this, its interesting to note that Cape Verdeans, Dominicans and Puerto Ricans share a higher concentration of North African admixtures than African Americans and other people who may have had Slave ancestry.
    Perhaps the higher percentage of North African admixture results from the Moorish presence in Spain.

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  7. #14
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    New stats for African Americans, over 200 results processed right now
    I don't expect the averages to change drastically anymore to be honest, this seems to be pretty much the average regional breakdown for AA's nation wide according to AncestryDNA and solely focussed on their African side. But the averages are hiding much underlying variation so it's still interesting to have a look at the outliers, which are shown in "maximum" and "ranked #1"








    When it comes to exceptionally high scores for just one category it's usually Nigeria, Cameroon/Congo or Ghana/Ivory Coast. I was a bit surprised about the small number of Senegal & Mali outliers, but perhaps if they had been combined into 1 "Upper Guinean" category there would have been more. As i already mentioned earlier many of the higher Senegal or Mali scores seem to occur for people with deep USA roots in South Carolina. Here's a cool map by Ancestry which confirms that finding.










    Posting some individual results that seem to be outliers, keep in mind most results will be more balanced and in line with the averages.


    High Senegal

    First 2 persons indeed from the Carolina's. Senegal rarely pops up at #1 or even the top 3 for the AA results i've seen sofar, only 2 other persons i've seen had Senegal at nr.1. His Mali is also quite high btw.






    This is his son who has the highest Senegal % i've seen eventhough it's not at nr.1







    this one's prolly half Afram, from Pensylvania, but who knows perhaps going back some generations also with Carolina roots.






    High Mali

    Mali also rarely makes a top 1 spot but more often than Senegal and with higher %'s













    Also notice rather high SE Bantu aside from high Mali







    High Southeastern Bantu

    Angolan/Congolese ancestry in AA's seems to be split up between this category and the Cameroon-Congo one. The SE Bantu being less significant and only rarely showing up in top 3 scores of AA results i've seen sofar. Here's a few though





    At number 2 but higher % than first one.







    High Nigeria

    Nigeria gets the most #1 spots and also the highest outliers. This one still showing high Mali in addition.




    This one having Senegal in top 3

    Last edited by Don Felipe; 08-09-2014 at 04:07 PM.

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  9. #15
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    Two atypical AA results, from what i've seen sofar very unusual but still part of AA variety.


    This guy has the craziest results i've seen for an Afram up till now . In fact i'm not sure if he's Afram all the way although he considers himself "black", he's also on 23andme so i suppose his CoA results might provide some solid clues about any possible foreign ancestry from several generations ago beyond family recollection.

    There's several things that stand out:
    • A whopping 13% North African! That's even higher than i've seen on this 1 PR guy who had 10%, the highest i've seen on any New Worlder
    • SE Bantu coming in at first spot, only happens very rarely for Aframs from what i've seen, it's not overly dominant though
    • His maternal haplo is M32c! Which is mostly seen among Malagassy if i'm not mistaken, quite rare but i've seen it reported for several other Aframs.
    • Not shown on the screenshot but in addition to 5% Amerindian he also has :

    Asia 4%
    Trace Regions 4%
    Asia South 2%
    Asia Central 1%
    Asia East 1%

    Pacific Islander 2%
    Trace Regions 2%
    Melanesia 2%

    West Asia 2%
    Trace Regions 2%
    Middle East 2%

    Europe 11%

    Trace Regions 11%
    Europe West 3%
    Iberian Peninsula 3%
    Italy/Greece 2%
    Great Britain 2%
    Ireland 1%








    Just speculating but the combination of his mtDNA, SE Bantu, minor Asia and even Pacific Islands (!) makes it eerily possible he has quite some significant Malagassy ancestry going on, inherited to a far greater degree than what i've seen on other Aframs who had reason to believe (mostly because of their maternal haplo being SE Asian) they had 1 single Malagassy ancestor in the distant past but somehow it got heavily dilluted for them and not for him. See also this excellent blog post:

    Got Roots in Madagascar?

    The North African is more mysterious and there could be several scenario's i suppose. The North African category on Ancestry seems to be more solidly "Berber" / "Maghrebi" than on 23andme from what i've seen from the Egyptian and Somalian results posted earlier. I suspect his Euro breakdown, which looks atypical for an AA who will be mostly if not exclusively NW European, will be related to some of those scenarios. His minimal Senegal & Mali make it seem less likely that it's derived from a Fula ancestor, but who knows.

    Having one exotic lineage from Madagascar, Sahellian West Africa or even North Africa from many, many generations ago is always a possibility of course but it tends to be VERY much dilluted from what i've seen showing up in minimal %'s, often near the margins of error. Really the thing that amazes me with this guy is just the random combination of it all (remember he also shows above average Amerindian for an Afram) and particularly the ELEVATED level of his North African. I mean having 13% North African is pretty much unique for a New Worlder unless they have recent ancestry from those parts, dating from the POST-colonial era.


    I also have his 23andme. The guy was complaining his AncestryDNA didn't correspond with 23andme but he used standard setting. On speculative it's bound to look more similar, already it looks quite unusual though for an Afram






    **************************************************





    Second atypical result for an Afram, not so much the SSA breakdown but the whopping 28% Amerindian! First time ever i'm seeing an Afram scoring more Amerindian than Euro, also on 23andme, almost zamboish This person actually has a fullblooded Native American grandmother from Utah so that accounts for 25%. In addition there's probably also some minor (3-5%) older Amerindian ancestry via her Afram grandparents. Even though for most Aframs their Native American %'s have been rather subdued contradicting family stories about significant Amerindian ancestry in the last 3 or 4 generations, this case shows it's not always like that.

    Interesting quote by Prof. Gates


    Why most black people aren’t “part Indian,”



    Again, here are the statistics: Whereas virtually all African Americans have a considerable amount of European ancestry in their genomes, only 19 percent have at least 1 percent Native American ancestry, and only 5 percent of African American people carry more than 2 percent Native American ancestry.

    Despite these averages, however, some African Americans do have significant amounts of Native American ancestry, though almost no black American person today has as much Native American ancestry as they do European ancestry, by quite a long shot. (This does not include black people of Hispanic origin, in that Hispanic Americans tend to have far more Native American ancestry than African Americans do.)





    Last edited by Don Felipe; 09-13-2014 at 01:25 PM.

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  11. #16
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    Anglo-Caribbean results


    A few Anglo-Caribbean results compared with other Afro-mixed groups. Of course only the AA sample size is big enough to be considered representative in any way, but you can already see some patterns that will be sustained i think even when i'll get more results in for the other nationalities. Anglo-Caribbean has 7 Jamaicans, 3 Belizeans, 3 Guyanese, 1 Trini, 1 from Montserrat and 1 mixed West Indian (several islands), Franco Caribbean is only 2 Haitians but might still be pretty representative. Hispanic Caribbeans is mostly PR's right now and a few Dominicans, things will look different if i get results for persons with higher SSA. Same goes for South Americans, which is mostly Colombians right now. North African is distorting things a bit for persons with lower SSA. If it wasn't included in total African you'd see even more pronounced Upper Guinean (Senegal + Mali) and SE Bantu in the SSA breakdown for Hispanics.





    Compared with the others i'm seeing Anglo-Caribbeans and AA's being predom. Lower Guinean (Ghana/Benin/Nigeria). Biggest difference between them being Benin/Togo, which is ranked #1 for Anglo-Caribbeans but only # 4 for AA's although it's still showing up strongly for AA's as well. Somewhat surprisingly it's especially dominant for Jamaicans i've seen up till now, ranked nr.1 for 5 out of 7 results. Besides the very real possibility (IMO) that it's (partially) genuinely Benin/Togo, meaning Gbe speaking groups like the Ewe and Fon there's 2 major caveats:


    1. the Benin/Togo and Ghana/Iv. Coast categories cluster the closest from all other SSA categories on AncestryDNA so there could be some incorrect assignment between the two (see this plot)
    2. Additionally also Nigerians (even Igbo's!) might have carried over some ancient "Benin/Togo" component (originating within Nigeria but nowadays seen more frequently among people from Benin/Togo) into AA's, Jamaicans & other Anglo-Caribbeans. I've seen an Igbo result i will post in a separate thread who scores 17% "Benin/Togo"!



    Senegal & SE Bantu is lowest among Anglo-Caribbeans for many even at very minimal or non-inexistent level. But for Latin Americans its among the biggest components corresponding with the earliest arrivals of Africans from Upper Guinea and Angola in the Americas in the 1500's/1600's. Given the low SSA of my samples i'm pretty sure things might be different when i get 50%+ SSA Latino results.

    Cameroon/Congo might partially also be derived from Igbo's or related Southeastern Nigerians for Anglo-Caribbeans and AA's. This fully Igbo i've seen scores 24% Cameroon/Congo which is about half of his "Nigeria" score. But it's quite telling how the average Cameroon/Congo % stilll is slightly higher for AA's (who according to historical sources would indeed have more Central African ancestry than West Indians) than it is for Anglo-Caribbeans and also how the 2 Haitians score the highest average. Again according to historical slave trade records genuine Congolese ancestry would indeed be among the highest for the Haitians.
    Last edited by Don Felipe; 09-25-2014 at 01:38 AM.

  12. #17
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    Some screenshots

    Jamaicans

    These two being very similar in the ranking of their top 3 but they're not related for all i know.


    Jamaican 1




    Jamaican 2



    Belizeans

    Kriol






    Kriol/Garifuna





    Garifuna, also notice his elevated Amerindian and ZERO Euro %!




    Guyanese

    High Ghana/Iv.Coast for the first one, more than 50% of his total African ancestry.





    High Mali for this one, it's the least reliable SSA category on AncestryDNA, so i guess it might as well signal ancestry from Sierra Leone/Guinea or even northern Ghana (Gur speaking groups)




    Montserrat


    First one actually also having partial roots in Barbados & Trinidad




    This one having minimal Euro input, such results probably more frequent among Anglo-Caribbeans than for AA's, although both groups can show wideranging levels of admixture and i 've seen several nearly 100% SSA results for AA's as well.


    Last edited by Don Felipe; 09-24-2014 at 09:26 PM.

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  14. #18
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    I've seen many African Americans show up with Pacific Islander. Why is that?

  15. #19
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    Quote Originally Posted by Erik View Post
    I've seen many African Americans show up with Pacific Islander. Why is that?
    I wouldn't say it shows up for many AA's, it's just a few of them i've seen myself (out of over 200 results). Also it's almost always being shown as Trace region and almost always as <1%, making it pretty much a noise level component.

    The only time i've seen someone who had it above 1% and not as Trace region was the "atypical AA" result i posted earlier who has 2% Melanesian. It might be real for him indeed or else signalling some other type of related ancestry not captured by the present categories. I've seen "Pacific Islander" %'s also for SE Asians and even South Asians.

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  17. #20
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    Some more Jamaican & Belizean results,


    Jamaica

    Finally Ghana/Ivory Coast showing up as main region instead of Benin/Togo for two of them. I already came up with several possible reasons why this category sofar seemed to show up so consistently for Jamaicans, i would like to add another (speculative) possibility, that is that aside from Ewe also other non-Akan speaking ethnic groups living in Ghana might be contributing to the ancestral markers being picked up as "Benin/Togo" by AncestryDNA. Again the labelling with country names should NOT be taken too literally! It's all context dependent.

    Especially the Ga seem to fit the bill as they also live in Togo and are quite numerous (1.8 million according to wiki). The Guang are also interesting as they are supposed to be the oldest inhabitants of Ghana. I suppose this could have made them especially vulnerable to enslavement after they got displaced by more dominant groups like the Akan. Here's a useful breakdown of ethnic groups in Ghana, of course it might have been different in earlier centuries. Akan constitute almost half of the population, Ewe + Ga combined are about 20%, and there's also several northern groups, i think they were generally named "Champa" in slave records. It might very well be that the selftermed "Ghana/IvoryCoast" cluster is only significantly predictive of Akan ancestry and less so for the other ethnic groups, more DNA research and ethnic sampling is needed to be sure though.






    First Jamaican has very cool results not showing ANY non-African admixture, 100% from the motherland . There must be many like him still in Jamaica otherwise it would be very difficult to maintain such a "pure" lineage. Afterall having offspring with a 90% SSA Jamaican would already get in the way of preserving this 100% score.





    This one also has a quite high SSA level and again showing Ghana/Ivory Coast as main region, compared with the previous Jamaican results showing Benin/Togo i suppose we could say they might all still be pointing to ancestral connections from Ghana but an Akan ancestor is MUCH more likely for this result, while for the others it might be non-Akan ethnicities from Ghana (aside from other possible scenarios).







    These two Jamaicans showing Benin/Togo as main region. First one VERY convincingly even, it's almost 80% (32/41) of total African ancestry! The second one is actually from Panama but with mostly Jamaican born grandparents.












    Belize

    In their African breakdown they follow the Jamaicans quite closely sofar. Focus being on Lower Guinea (Ghana-Nigeria) and also Cameroon/Congo. Senegal being almost absent and Mali & SE Bantu quite low. This was to be expected as most Africans in Belize arrived via Jamaica. The main distinction is more so in the non-SSA admixture, especially the Amerindian scores.





    Very high Ghana/Ivory Coast for this one, over 65% (46/68) of total African ancestry





    Last edited by Don Felipe; 11-23-2014 at 07:38 PM.

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