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Thread: AncestryDNA breakdown of SSA for African Americans & other Afrodescendants

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    AncestryDNA breakdown of SSA for African Americans & other Afrodescendants

    Last year AncestryDNA updated their Ethnicity Estimate to include a very detailed breakdown of West African ancestry. Obviously 100% reliability cannot be guaranteed at this stage and there might still be some other imperfections as well (lacking reference populations, sample size etc.). But still I do find the results to be quite fascinating and it must be very exciting for African Americans and other Afrodescendants wanting to learn more about their African roots. Here's a link with more info

    AncestryDNA Makes Scientific Breakthrough in West African Ethnicity

    I've been collecting results posted on the net, right now i have over 130 results for Aframs and many results for other Afrodescendants as well. For easier comparison I have recalculated everyone's original African %'s so that they add up to 100%. In other words only the African part of the results haven been taken in consideration and they have been scaled to 100%. For example, someone with a total African score of 75% and a Nigeria score of 25% would get an adjusted score of 25/75= 33,33% Nigeria out of his total African ancestry.

    Here's a link to the spreadsheet which contains all the results. Besides a tab for the results and the statistics there's several other tabs on the bottom as well where i sorted the results according to USA origins and also for each African region from highest to lowest score.

    Spreadsheet with results

    Really only the AA sample seems big enough to make any generalizing statements but the other ones are very interesting in themselves as well. I find that comparing these results between people of different backgrounds helps to make better sense of your own personal results but also gives more insight on grouplevel into the possible ancestral roots within Africa of various Afrodescended ethnicities like African Americans, Jamaicans, Haitians, Cape Verdeans and Dominicans. Learning which regional ancestry they might have in common and also where their overall profile looks more specific/typical for the ethnic group they belong to. Here's a screenshot of the stats sofar (see tab "Stats" in spreadsheet).

    *******

    EDIT: for an updated overview see this link: https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/ancestrydna/






    Observations for African American (AA) results:



    • AncestryDNA results seem to deviate A LOT from what's predicted by GED-Match calculator Africa9. They are much more varied and shifting across various parts of West/Central Africa for each person, while the Africa9 results were rather consistent with Kongo, Bamoun and Fang (Cameroon and Congo) as the topmatches for most African Americans. Going by what 's been documented on slave trade patterns AncestryDNA seems much more reliable to me.



    • Although individual results vary a lot, on average the results seem to be roughly in line with what's known from slave trade records. Nigeria would be the biggest component (it also has the highest outliers) followed closely by Congo/Cameroon and Ghana/Ivory Coast, if you combine Senegal and Mali as 1 Upper Guinean category it would also be among the top 4 although perhaps less prominent than expected.



    • Biggest surprise is the high score for Benin/Togo (~15%), because that's an area where relatively few slaves were shipped from to the US according to the records. Below 5% according to most estimates. Taking a sceptical stand you could say this is the very first DNA test attempting to disentangle SSA regional roots and Ancestry.com also mentions themselves that their Ghanaian samples cluster very closely with their Benin ones. So possibly there's some misreading going on. On the other hand slave trade statistics don't tell the full story and future more refined DNA testing might debunk some myths about ethnic origins of AA's and other Afrodescendants. For one i think substantial Ewe slave exports via Ghana could partially be causing this outcome. According to Wikipedia 32% of population in Togo are Ewe and they are about 14% in Ghana. Partially it could also reflect some founding effect of Fon/Gbe people from Benin/Togo arriving via Barbados/Jamaica in the late 1600's early 1700's. Actually in the early slave trade period the Bight of Benin was a major stopping zone for English traders. Only later on Ghana and Biafra became more prominent.



    • Another surprise is the relatively high SE Bantu score (~7%), according to slavevoyages.org it would only have been 2%. But it's VERY likely that this category is actually reflecting genetical similarity being picked up for ancestry coming from Congo/Angola rather than Mozambique or Madagascar.



    • There's no separate category yet for Sierra Leone/Liberia/Guinea. But many AA's would have some partial ancestry coming from these parts. So i suppose right now this portion is being included in other regions, Ghana/Ivory Coast & Mali perhaps being the most likely candidates.



    • The Cameroon-Congo category is defined rather broadly. Given the widely reported Igbo contribution to the AA genepool it would be very useful if it gets split up in a future update in order to distinguish between ancestry coming from the Bight of Biafra and Congo proper. An actual Igbo person taking this ANcestryDNA test is likely to also get some susbtantial % for Cameroon/Congo in addition to just Nigeria.





    Observations for Cape Verdean (CV) results



    • Their consistently high Senegal scores (above 50% for everyone) combined with significant Mali and North African scores seem to confirm predom. Senegambian/Guinean ancestry for CV's and also that AncestryDna analysis is not completely random



    • Intriguingly there's also other components showing up besides the expected Senegal/Mali/North Africa and even relatively high scores for Cameroon/Congo and SE Bantu. This is kind of surprising given Cape Verde's geographical location and also everything i've read about slave trade patterns between Cape Verde and the mainland. Which clearly describe the area in between Senegal and Sierra Leone as practically the only provenance zone for slaves brought to Cape Verde safe for some individuals who came on random slave voyages from further away. I suppose it might still be possible that slaves being brought from Angola or even Mozambique to CV were more frequent than recorded by history. Eventhough there's no independent genetical proof for this going by maternal haplogroups (all studies sofar suggest a Senegambian MT-DNA profile) and also not going by retention of any Central African cultural traditions in Cape Verde which has only Guinean and Senegambian influences in its Crioulo culture afaik. See also these papers:
    • Mitochondrial portrait of the Cabo Verde archipelago: the Senegambian outpost of Atlantic slave trade
    • Dissecting the Within-Africa Ancestry of Populations of African Descent in the Americas




    • There might be interisland differences showing up. Although only a larger samplesize can reveal this more clearly. Right now most of them are from Santo Antão, but there's also 2 with (partial) origins from Brava and 1 from Fogo. Generally speaking CV islanders will be descended from the same founding populations. Fogo and Santiago being the islands with the earliest settlement. Other islands mostly being populated by people coming from these 2 islands later on in history. However because of bottleneck effects and recombination the regional DNA markers might have been preserved/inherited in diverging proportions for each island.



    • In any case the sample size is way too small to make any conclusions yet regarding these unexpected non-Senegambian/Guinean scores. Results might be different for other islanders because of some bottleneck effect on Santo Antão. I suppose another explanation could be that somehow the analysis by AncestryDna still isn't entirely waterproof although surely a big improvement because it does show a significant pull towards Senegal & to a lesser extent Mali for CV's as was to be expected. The only thing which could clear this case up would be to see the results of a fully Senegalese or Guinean guy and see if he might also have some %'s from Cameroon-Congo or even SE Bantu.




    Observations for Puerto Rican (PR) results



    • Combined Senegal and Mali results are higher on average than for Aframs. High Upper Guinean scores (Senegal+ Mali) seem to confirm the founding effect of the early 16th/17th century slave imports into the Spanish Carribean which were predominantly coming from Senegambia/Guinea by way of Cape Verde. This outcome seems to corroborate earlier findings in this recent study:

      Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean

      We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation.



    • Balanced results for all categories on average, only the relatively high North Africa score really stands out. Confirming Canarian origins i suppose. It's higher than the CV average but from what i've seen on 23andme it's the other way around with CV's usually scoring higher for North African. The sample is really small though and no CV's from Fogo or Brava yet. Also unlike on 23andme North African is included in total African which creates a skewed outcome if total African is minor as it is for PR's.



    • Because of their relatively low total African ancestry there might be a higher chance of regional outliers among PR's. Recombination leading to a disproportional % of inherited DNA markers for 1 particular region. Besides North African this also seems to be the case for 2 very high Mali scores sofar.




    Observations for Dominican (DR) results



    • Their Senegal score is the highest among New Worlders sofar. Might be a clue that they share much Senegambian/Guinean ancestry with CV's dating from the 16th/17th centuries as was seen for the PR's as well. This founding effect is probably also going to show up for other Latin Americans.



    • Congo/Cameroon & SE Bantu seem to be consistently high sofar as well, in line with cultural retentions from Congo in the DR. Sample size isn't really big yet. But using a 3-way division of the African regions on AncestryDNA: Upper Guinea (= Senegal+Mali), Lower Guinea (Ghana/Ivory Coast + Benin/Togo + Nigeria) & Central/Southern Africa (Cameroon/Congo+ SE Bantu). I suppose we can say that AA's are mostly Lower Guinean with a slight shift to Central African. CV's are predom. Upper Guinean while PR's & DR's are almost evenly split but showing highest outliers for Upper Guinea and Central African.




    Observations for Jamaican results



    • Surprisingly low Ghana scores sofar given the widely reported Akan connection for Jamaica! Important to underline there's only two Jamaican results to go by. But goes to show these results can be wideranging depending on someone's personal family tree and how many regional DNA markers were inherited through recombination.



    • Also rather high Mali & Benin/Togo. A similar explanation as used for the AA's should be valid for the Jamaicans as well regarding the unexpectedly high Benin/Togo. The Mali category has the lowest confidence range according to AncestryDNA. So i suppose it could also signal northern Ghanaian or Burkina Faso ancestry for Jamaicans.



    • Very low Senegal & SE Bantu scores are in line with slave trade records. Compared to African Americans Jamaicans are more likely to end up being predominantly Lower Guinean on average while the Central African and Upper Guinean parts will be insignificant for most. Which is not the case for AA's, Upper Guinean & Central African being minor compared to Lower Guinean but still very noticeable for most.




    Observations for Haitian results



    • High Benin & Congo scores are perfectly in line with what's known about Haitian ethnic make-up from historical documentation as well as cultural retention. Regrettably only 1 result to go by though. I expect Haitian results will vary just like the ones seen among AA's but perhaps less so. Would be interesting to see which nationality shows the most or least consistent mix of African regions.
    Last edited by Don Felipe; 04-18-2015 at 10:06 AM.
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    Some info on the categories being used by AncestryDNA. As always the labeling should not be taken too literally as it's dependent on the reference populations being used and also doesn't exclude the possibility of mutual overlap. I haven't done the AncestryDNA test myself yet but one thing i like about this company is that they provide much more details and clarification on how to interpret your results than 23andme for example...It's a more honest approach and avoids any possible misleading of people without enough background information.

    Not sure how reliable the results might be, only test results of genuine Africans with certified ethnic/regional background can tell. But when describing a typical person from one of their 9 categories Ancestry.com mentions explicitly that because of widespread shared ancestry regionally speaking, a "typical" Malian or Nigerian will usually also get a breakdown into several categories and not fit 100% in their national category, in other words none of the categories are unique or discrete, because just like anywhere else in the world African ethnicities have been intermixing for ages and show overlapping ancestral markers. Genetics doesn't respect manmade borders. If you go back far enough in time you're always going to find some ancestral connections and therefore genetical similarity between populations even if they're geographically far apart. This complicates a breakdown into neat categories we all would like to see, but being aware of this fact does provide more insight for your results.




    According to this link he following samples were used

    Africa Southeastern Bantu 18
    Africa North 26
    Africa Southcentral Hunter Gatherers 35
    Benin/Togo 60
    Cameroon/Congo 115
    Ivory/Ghana 99
    Mali 16
    Nigeria 67
    Senegal 28

    It also mentions that the socalled Human Genome Diversity Project data were utilized. In this database there's a sample of about 20-30 Mandenka individuals from Senegal. So it's very likely they're the reference population being used by AncestryDNA to define their Senegal category. Which would mean that the Senegal category is in fact also a proxy for a subgroup of Mande speakers. I used to think it might be a proxy for Atlantic speakers instead (Wolof and Guinea Bissau) while the Mali category could be a proxy for Mande speakers. This would seem logical given the CV results. Not sure yet which samples were used for the Mali category but might be either Dogon or Bambara. The samples being used for Cameroon-Congo are probably the same Bamoun, Fang and Kongo samples as utilized by the various GED Match calculators. South Africans were most likely used to define the SE Bantu category. Nigeria probably has Yoruba samples but not sure if it also includes Igbo ones. Also not sure about which ethnic groups were sampled for Ghana-Ivory Coast and Benin-Togo.

    In addition they might also still be using the Sorenson database (SMGF) like they did before the update.

    The Benin/Togo and Ghana/Ivory Coast categories seem to cluster most closely according to this plot. Cameroon-Congo is quite condensed while Nigeria, Mali and Senegal are scattered. Senegal seems to have the most distance to the other clusters.




    Some quotes on how AncestryDNA describes the categories themselves (they provide even more detailed information on ethnic groups which i didn't copy)

    Senegal

    Primarily found in: Senegal, Gambia
    May also be found in: Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania

    Typical Native 100%

    "The Senegal region is less admixed than most other regions. That
    means that when creating ethnicity estimates for people native to
    this region, we sometimes see small amounts of DNA from other nearby
    regions included. The typical person born in this region today has
    about 100% of his DNA unique to this region."

    Other regions commonly seen in people native to Senegal
    From our reference collection of 28 people

    Region % of natives that have this region
    Mali 46%
    Benin/Togo 7%


    Mali

    Primarily found in: Mali, Guinea
    May also be found in: Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Senegal

    Typical native 39%

    The Mali region is more admixed than most other regions. That means
    that when creating ethnicity estimates for people native to this
    region, we often see DNA from other nearby regions included--in fact
    the typical person born in this region today has only about 39% of
    his DNA unique to this region."

    Other regions commonly seen in people native to Mali
    From our reference collection of 16 people

    Region % of natives that have this region
    Ivory Coast/Ghana 69%
    Senegal 69%
    Benin/Togo 25%
    Nigeria 25%
    Cameroon/Congo 19%

    Ivory Coast/Ghana

    Primarily found in: Ivory Coast, Ghana
    May also be found in: Togo, Mali, Nigeria

    Typical native 86-100%

    Other regions commonly seen in people native to Ivory Coast/Ghana
    From our reference collection of 115 people

    Region % of natives that have this region
    Benin/Togo 43%
    Mali 32%
    Nigeria 11%
    Senegal 8%
    Africa Southeastern Bantu 2%
    Cameroon/Congo 1%



    *Benin/Togo

    Primarily found in: Benin, Togo
    May also be found in: Ghana, Nigeria, Mali

    *Benin/Togo

    Typical native 82-100%

    Other regions commonly seen in people native to Benin/Togo
    From our reference collection of 60 people

    Region % of natives that have this region
    Ivory Coast/Ghana 43%
    Nigeria 28%
    Mali 25%
    Cameroon/Congo 10%
    Senegal 3%
    Africa Southeastern Bantu 3%

    Nigeria

    Primarily found in: Nigeria
    May also be found in: Niger, Benin, Cameroon

    Typical native 69-95%

    "The Nigeria region is the most admixed of our identified regions.
    That means that when creating ethnicity estimates for people native
    to this region, we almost always see DNA from other nearby regions
    included--in fact the typical person born in this region today has
    only about 69% of his DNA unique to this region."

    Other regions commonly seen in people native to Nigeria
    From our reference collection of 67 people

    Region % of natives that have this region
    Benin/Togo 45%
    Cameroon/Congo 37%
    Africa Southeastern Bantu 22%
    Mali * 13%
    Ivory Coast/Ghana 9%
    Senegal 7%



    Cameroon/Congo

    Primarily located in: Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Republic of Congo
    Also found in: Angola, Chad


    Typical native 92-100%

    Other regions commonly seen in people native to Cameroon/Congo
    From our reference collection of 115 people

    Region % of natives that have this region
    Nigeria 21%
    Africa Southeastern Bantu 21%
    Benin/Togo 10%
    Mali 10%
    Ivory Coast/Ghana 4%
    Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers 2%
    Senegal 1%

    South-Central African Hunter-Gatherers

    Primarily found in: South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Congo
    May also be found in: Angola, Zambia, Tanzania, Kenya

    Typical native 86-100%

    Other regions commonly seen in people native to Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers
    From our reference collection of 35 people

    Region % of natives that have this region
    Cameroon/Congo 54%
    Africa Southeastern Bantu 9%
    Mali * 6%
    Ivory Coast/Ghana 3%



    Southeastern Bantu

    Primarily found in: South Africa, Kenya, Namibia, Botswana,
    Zimbabwe, Zambia, Angola, Tanzania, Mozambique, Uganda

    May also be found in: Nigeria, Congo

    Typical native 72-100%

    "Like most of our identified regions, the Africa Southeastern Bantu
    region is admixed, which means that when creating ethnicity
    estimates for people native to this region, we frequently see DNA
    from other nearby regions included. The typical person born in this
    region today has about 72% of his DNA unique to this region."

    Other regions commonly seen in people native to Africa Southeastern Bantu
    From our reference collection of 18 people

    Region % of natives that have this region
    Cameroon/Congo * 44%
    Africa South-Central Hunter-Gatherers 39%
    Nigeria 17%
    Near East 17%
    Africa North 6%
    Ivory Coast/Ghana 6%
    Mali 6%
    Senegal 6%
    Last edited by Don Felipe; 04-18-2015 at 10:07 AM.
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    It's known that there were distinct regional patterns in the direct African slave trade for the main ports of entry into the US. Therefore i separated some results for people who according to their own knowledge have deep roots within either Virginia/Maryland, Carolina's/Georgia or the Gulf states. I only got this info for a minority of the results though.

    It seems however that few Aframs can trace their origins to only one state or region. Going back not just 3 generations but 200 or 300 years when their first Africanborn ancestors arrived in the US. This because of the high mobility of Aframs throughout US history and especially because of the socalled second Middle Passage to the Deep South, incl. the Gulf States. So basically I suspect that in many cases it could be quite complex to find much correlation because of all the mixing and migrations that took place. Very deeprooted rural and isolated communities might be the exception though.

    Check these links for some excellent background info and maps

    http://rootsrevealed.blogspot.nl/201...ers-to_30.html
    http://www.inmotionaame.org/migratio...fm?migration=3


    Here goes the results i have, you can contrast the regional averages against the nationwide averages "AFRAM" (screenshots taken at an earlier moment than in the OP).

    This is what stands out the most to me:



    • relatively high Upper Guinean (Senegal + Mali) score for the Carolina's/Georgia (SC&GA)), to be explained by the well known Sierra Leone/Gambia connection for this area? First two results are Gullah's.


    • relatively high Ghana & Nigeria for Virginia/Maryland (VA&MA), to be explained by the documented widespread presence of Igbo's as well as early Carribean imports via Jamaica & Barbados?


    • surprisingly low Upper Guinean (Senegal + Mali) results for the Gulf States (GS) and relatively high Nigeria average. Not really in line with what you'd expect going only by French slave imports into this area.



    South Carolina/Georgia




    Virginia




    Gulf States






    Remember the samplesize is very small so best not to jump to conclusions yet I think the results from the Carolina's/Georgia might be most reliable because there's more who said they trace all their ancestry from just that area, some even with fully Gullah roots. The Gulf states i think might be a little misleading because i also included states like Texas and Florida, whose US regional origins might ultimately go back mostly to SC and VA (if you're able to trace back beyond 1870) and are not per se related to the slave trade conducted by the French in Louisiana/Mississippi. I've always been wondering how many people from Louisiana and neighbouring states can trace their roots to the French period. I always assumed this would be the case for a majority of them. But i'm not so sure now after reading about the domestic slave trade. It might be that Louisiana was rather thinly settled in the French time and therefore a majority of Aframs there descend from people brought in from the Upper South after the Louisiana purchase. The results sofar in my sheet for people from the Gulf states also seem to indicate so because they're out of line (relatively speaking) with the provenance zones known from French slave trade (esp. Senegal + Mali) and instead follow fairly closely the national averages. Traditionally Lousiana is seen as being the area that received the highest frequency of Senegambians (almost 40%!). However notice in the first chart above how the absolute numbers involved (8600) were very small compared with imports via South Carolina & Virginia.
    Last edited by Don Felipe; 04-18-2015 at 10:07 AM.
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    Posting some AA results to show the range of their individual variation. Sofar Nigeria stands out as being most often at nr.1 and also having the biggest ratio to total African. Highest score sofar being 69%. Cameroon/Congo, Ghana/CIV and even Benin/Togo also very often come in at nr.1 or atleast the top 3. Senegal, Mali and SE Bantu are much less frequently seen in people's top 3 and almost never coming in at nr.1. The ranking can be VERY different though for each individual.

    I sort of expected the top 3 regions to have been more consistent given that compared to other Afrodescendants in the New World the Aframs are descended from a relatively small founding population. The USA being one of the few colonies where slaves had a positive reproduction rate from the start which canceled the need for massive imports like in the Carribean and Brazil. Also the domestic slave trade whereby slaves from the Upper South (esp. Virginia) were transported to the Deep South (esp. after Lousiana was sold by the French) would have lead to Aframs having much shared ancestry. Intermixing within the Afram community steadily increasing because of 20th century migrations to the North and West. I suppose despite all that of course Aframs do also have unique family trees and individuals may have inherited disproportionally from specific lineages when compared with others. It could be that this is also reflected in the widely varying results sofar.


    Nigeria #1


    This person has the 2nd highest Nigeria score sofar (46/73=63%), usually it's more balanced. Senegal coming in at nr.2 is also a bit atypical.



    This one has the highest Nigeria ratio right now, almost 70% of total Africa! (29/42=69%), he's probably half Afram.



    Another very high Nigeria score, this time with Mali as nr. 2




    Nigeria at nr.1 again but not as dominant, very evenly distributed. Interesting how SE Bantu & Cameroon/Congo are almost equal.






    Cameroon/Congo#1

    Sometimes Nigeria gets really low though, some people even score 0% for it like this one. Congo/Cameroon on the other hand is very strong, 50% of total African.




    Other people with Cameroon/Congo at nr.1 but still very diverse and predom. West African.












    Benin/Togo #1

    First 2 have about 50 % Benin/Togo out of total African, first one also has quite high SE Bantu.










    Ghana/Ivory Coast #1


    Some high Ghana/CIV for these ones. Second one is a child of first one, shows how recombination can mix up the ranking of the regions. But nr.1 spot usually stays the same. Third one shows very balanced results.









    Last edited by Don Felipe; 04-18-2015 at 10:08 AM.
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    Some non-AA results for contrast


    Cape Verde (from Fogo)

    VERY high Senegal (45/61), taken as % of total African it's 73,8% the highest i've seen scored for any category by anyone sofar. Aframs highest single category score being 69% for Nigeria, for Dominicans it's 42% for SE Bantu and for PR's a 72% ratio out of total African for Mali. The PR ratio's more likely to be extreme because of their lower total African though.





    Puerto Rico

    Very high Mali score for first one, 72% (13/18) of total African. Below is a result of a halfsibling for this person. Notice there's no Mali but instead Senegal having the highest score!








    Highest SE Bantu on a PR sofar: 34,4% (11/32). Trace regions are not being shown but most likely there would be either Senegal or Mali there as well.





    This one is is half PR, half DR. High Benin/Togo score (19/51=37.3%). Still his combined Senegal and Mali is in line with other DR/PR results.





    Dominican Republic

    Senegal coming in at either position 1 or 2. Many other DR's will probably show the same pattern.









    Mexico

    VERY interesting because it's usually assumed that the minor African ancestry reported for Mexicans would be overwhelmingly Angolan. But this isn't showing up in these 3 results. Instead Upper Guinean seems to be most important for these individuals if you combine Mali with Senegal and contrast with combined scores for SE Bantu + Congo/Cameroon. Of course total African is minor so recombination could distort things.

    It's indeed true that during the peak of slave imports into Mexico (1590-1640) Angola was undoubtedly predominant as supplier of slaves to Veracruz, perhaps even as much as 90%. After 1640 when the Portuguese assiento ended, slave imports started to decline fast but still continued up till the early 1700's, most of them probably came from Ghana-Benin. However in the period 1520-1590 it was mostly Senegambians/Guineans who entered Mexico by way of Cape Verde or as socalled Ladino's from Iberia/DR. It seems their legacy still lives on in the genes of some presentday Mexicans.









    Columbia

    Again some founder effects from either Upper Guinea or Congo/Angola even though total African is very minor. Black Colombians might show some more diversity though also reflecting African ancestry coming from Lower Guinea from the 1700's/1800's.





    Cuba

    Same comment as for Colombia.

    Last edited by Don Felipe; 04-17-2014 at 06:05 PM.

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    Thanks for showing the new proportions !

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    Thank you for sharing this, its interesting to note that Cape Verdeans, Dominicans and Puerto Ricans share a higher concentration of North African admixtures than African Americans and other people who may have had Slave ancestry.

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    Quote Originally Posted by RCO View Post
    Thanks for showing the new proportions !
    Do you know any Brazilians who took the AncestryDNA test? Should be very interesting to see their results if they have any African ancestry. Most likely for people from Rio and Minas Gerais it will be mostly SE Bantu & Congo-Cameroon, reflecting Angolan, Congolese and Mozambican ancestry. But for Bahians it might be mostly Benin/Togo & Nigeria reflecting the high Yoruba connection. And for people from Maranhão & Amazonas it might even be Senegal which comes on top because unlike other parts of Brazil most Africans arriving there came by way of Guiné Bissau.

    Quote Originally Posted by Mehrdad View Post
    Thank you for sharing this, its interesting to note that Cape Verdeans, Dominicans and Puerto Ricans share a higher concentration of North African admixtures than African Americans and other people who may have had Slave ancestry.
    Indeed, i suspect for Dominicans and Puerto Ricans it might mostly be derived from their Canarian ancestry. For CapeVerdeans it could be either directly from North Africa as well because some Moriscos and Berber slaves might have been brought there in the early settlement period (1460-1560). But partially it might also be because of Sahellian ancestry, esp. Fula, who might also carry an ancient North African component.

    See also this thread

    23&me + GED-Match results of a Guinean Fula from Fouta Djallon

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    Don Felipe, I don't know Brazilians who tested with AncestryDNA but this new methodology would be very useful as Brazil was the biggest importer of Africans in the New World with the biggest territory and for the longest time. I hope they can improve and refine that kind of genetic tools.

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    Interesting thing, on the admixturemap.paintmychromosomes website the Mandinka people of West Africa come close to Moroccans at 7.7%.

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