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Thread: 40,000-Year-Old Individual from Asia Provides Insight into Early Population Structure

  1. #1
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    40,000-Year-Old Individual from Asia Provides Insight into Early Population Structure

    http://www.cell.com/current-biology/...822(17)31195-8

    Nice one to follow Sunghir

    "By at least 45,000 years before present, anatomically modern humans had spread across Eurasia [1, 2, 3], but it is not well known how diverse these early populations were and whether they contributed substantially to later people or represent early modern human expansions into Eurasia that left no surviving descendants today. Analyses of genome-wide data from several ancient individuals from Western Eurasia and Siberia have shown that some of these individuals have relationships to present-day Europeans [4, 5] while others did not contribute to present-day Eurasian populations [3, 6]. As contributions from Upper Paleolithic populations in Eastern Eurasia to present-day humans and their relationship to other early Eurasians is not clear, we generated genome-wide data from a 40,000-year-old individual from Tianyuan Cave, China, [1, 7] to study his relationship to ancient and present-day humans. We find that he is more related to present-day and ancient Asians than he is to Europeans, but he shares more alleles with a 35,000-year-old European individual than he shares with other ancient Europeans, indicating that the separation between early Europeans and early Asians was not a single population split. We also find that the Tianyuan individual shares more alleles with some Native American groups in South America than with Native Americans elsewhere, providing further support for population substructure in Asia [8] and suggesting that this persisted from 40,000 years ago until the colonization of the Americas. Our study of the Tianyuan individual highlights the complex migration and subdivision of early human populations in Eurasia.

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    This is interesting:

    Quote Originally Posted by Yang et al. 2017
    Most Asian and Native American populations share similar numbers of alleles with the Tianyuan individual (Tables S2Bv and S2Dviii). However, three South American populations—the Surui and Karitiana in Brazil (“Amazonians”) and the Chane in northern Argentina and southern Bolivia—share more alleles with the Tianyuan individual than other Native American populations do (Figure 3A; Tables S2E, S2H, and S2J).
    I'm reminded of how Skoglund et al. 2015 also found that some of these same South-Americans share more alleles with Oceanians and the Andamanese than other Native-Americans do:


    I figured ENA ancient DNA would eventually touch on this but damn; not this early.

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    Some highlights : Tianyuan-related ancestry contribution to ENA groups and on ties to Goyet.

    It has previously been shown using chromosome 21 that the Tianyuan individual shares more alleles with present-day Asians than with present-day Europeans. We similarly find that the Tianyuan individual shares more alleles with present-day Eastern Eurasians, Oceanians, and Native Americans than with other present-day humans using the statistic, with the highest similarity to East and Southeast Asian populations

    We show that the Tianyuan individual is not from a population that is directly ancestral to any group of present-day East or Southeast Asians, but rather belonged to a population that diverged from the population that contributed to present-day East and Southeast Asians. This is consistent with his unique ties to the 35,000-year-old GoyetQ116-1 and to some South American populations, which are not observed in present-day East and Southeast Asians.


    On other Paleolithic :

    One population, represented by the 37,000-year-old Kostenki14, contributed genetic ancestry to present-day Europeans; a second population represented by the Tianyuan individual contributed to present-day East and Southeast Asians; and one or more additional populations represented by the 45,000-year-old Ust’-Ishim and the 40,000-year-old Oase1 individuals did not contribute detectably to any present-day populations.
    On MA1 : same as Lipson, this study mentions EHG shows evidence Asian gene flow.

    "Lipson and Reich find that the 24,000-year-old Mal’ta1 and 16,500-year-old AfontovaGora3 from western Siberia and several 7,000- to 14,000-year-old Western Eurasian individuals show evidence of gene flow from a population related to the East and Southeast Asian Ami. We observe that the Eastern European hunter-gatherer Karelia [9], like the ancient Siberians and Western Eurasians, also show evidence of Asian gene flow. We also find that the pattern occurs for more East and Southeast Asian populations than just the Ami . Previous demographic inference studies have inferred non-zero levels of migration between the ancestors of present-day European and Asian populations. Using the Tianyuan individual, we directly show that the separation of populations ancestral to more recent Europeans and Asians was a complex process that may have involved a sub-structured ancestral population and gene flow subsequent to geographic separation of populations."

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    Last edited by epoch; 10-13-2017 at 06:07 AM.

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    Just my layman look at it, but shouldn't the groups like Kostenki/Goyet have a split further up the trunk? Plausibly closer in position to "Basal Eurasian", and merely shared alleles with the other Eurasian populations such as Tianyuan, Malta..etc? The dendograms, including the one in the paper look like they are immediate brothers if not descendants of the K2 groups when all male sequences are descended from CF->C. From the Y phylogeny that doesn't seem to be the case, although I know this is not a direct relationship with the Y.
    Perhaps if an even old skeleton, let's say 60,000 ybp were sequence from Asia, that would correct the diagrams.
    Last edited by ADW_1981; 10-12-2017 at 09:53 PM.
    YDNA: R1b-Z220 (A7066+) (1800's Stepney, London(Bethnal Green), UK George Wood b. 1782
    maternal-grandfather YDNA: ? Gurr, George 1843, Feversham, Kent, England.
    maternal-grandmother YDNA: ? Beech, John Richard b. 1780, Lewes, England
    maternal-ggrandfather YDNA R1b-U106 Thomas, Edward b 1854, Sittingbourne, Kent
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Gould, John Somerset England 1800s.
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Scott, William Hamilton mdka Ireland(?) < 1800s

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    No Ydna?

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    Anyone want to doubt my tree now? I think that Goyet being a singleton from Aurignacian might just be better ignored. You can see this stuff in single genomes, but can largely be wiped out by having a cluster from the same group. One could also branch from pre-Goyet and give Goyet some early Asian-type. Although, this could be actual admixture from an Oase-1 / Ust_Ishim type. I can get that to work on the graphs.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Chad Rohlfsen View Post
    Anyone want to doubt my tree now? I think that Goyet being a singleton from Aurignacian might just be better ignored. You can see this stuff in single genomes, but can largely be wiped out by having a cluster from the same group. One could also branch from pre-Goyet and give Goyet some early Asian-type. Although, this could be actual admixture from an Oase-1 / Ust_Ishim type. I can get that to work on the graphs.
    How can you ignore Goyet when that is the predominant signature in W. Europe until the ascendance of Villabruna?

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    Quote Originally Posted by ADW_1981 View Post
    ...
    Perhaps if an even old skeleton, let's say 60,000 ybp were sequence from Asia, that would correct the diagrams.
    No doubt in my mind. But that skeleton IMO can only be from East Asia - which in turn would mean that humans were absent for a period of time from West Asia.

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    Big let down. No YDNA.

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