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Thread: Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans

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    Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans

    https://twitter.com/iosif_lazaridis/...94484278403072

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...tcallback=true

    Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans

    Iosif Lazaridis, Alissa Mittnik, Nick Patterson, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Saskia Pfrengle, Anja Furtwängler, Alexander Peltzer, Cosimo Posth, Andonis Vasilakis, P. J. P. McGeorge, Eleni Konsolaki-Yannopoulou, George Korres, Holley Martlew, Manolis Michalodimitrakis, Mehmet Özsait, Nesrin Özsait, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Michael Richards, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Yannis Tzedakis, Robert Arnott, Daniel M. Fernandes, Jeffery R. Hughey, Dimitra M. Lotakis, Patrick A. Navas, Yannis Maniatis, John A. Stamatoyannopoulos, Kristin Stewardson, Philipp Stockhammer, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich, Johannes Krause & George Stamatoyannopoulos

    Nature
    (2017)
    doi:10.1038/nature23310

    Received 21 December 2016
    Accepted 25 June 2017
    Published online 02 August 2017

    The origins of the Bronze Age Minoan and Mycenaean cultures have puzzled archaeologists for more than a century. We have assembled genome-wide data from 19 ancient individuals, including Minoans from Crete, Mycenaeans from mainland Greece, and their eastern neighbours from southwestern Anatolia. Here we show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically similar, having at least three-quarters of their ancestry from the first Neolithic farmers of western Anatolia and the Aegean1, 2, and most of the remainder from ancient populations related to those of the Caucasus3 and Iran4, 5. However, the Mycenaeans differed from Minoans in deriving additional ancestry from an ultimate source related to the hunter–gatherers of eastern Europe and Siberia6, 7, 8, introduced via a proximal source related to the inhabitants of either the Eurasian steppe1, 6, 9 or Armenia4, 9. Modern Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the Early Neolithic ancestry. Our results support the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest civilizations.

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    Quote Originally Posted by rozenfeld View Post
    https://twitter.com/iosif_lazaridis/...94484278403072

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...tcallback=true

    Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans

    Iosif Lazaridis, Alissa Mittnik, Nick Patterson, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Saskia Pfrengle, Anja Furtwängler, Alexander Peltzer, Cosimo Posth, Andonis Vasilakis, P. J. P. McGeorge, Eleni Konsolaki-Yannopoulou, George Korres, Holley Martlew, Manolis Michalodimitrakis, Mehmet Özsait, Nesrin Özsait, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Michael Richards, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Yannis Tzedakis, Robert Arnott, Daniel M. Fernandes, Jeffery R. Hughey, Dimitra M. Lotakis, Patrick A. Navas, Yannis Maniatis, John A. Stamatoyannopoulos, Kristin Stewardson, Philipp Stockhammer, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich, Johannes Krause & George Stamatoyannopoulos

    Nature
    (2017)
    doi:10.1038/nature23310

    Received 21 December 2016
    Accepted 25 June 2017
    Published online 02 August 2017

    The origins of the Bronze Age Minoan and Mycenaean cultures have puzzled archaeologists for more than a century. We have assembled genome-wide data from 19 ancient individuals, including Minoans from Crete, Mycenaeans from mainland Greece, and their eastern neighbours from southwestern Anatolia. Here we show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically similar, having at least three-quarters of their ancestry from the first Neolithic farmers of western Anatolia and the Aegean1, 2, and most of the remainder from ancient populations related to those of the Caucasus3 and Iran4, 5. However, the Mycenaeans differed from Minoans in deriving additional ancestry from an ultimate source related to the hunter–gatherers of eastern Europe and Siberia6, 7, 8, introduced via a proximal source related to the inhabitants of either the Eurasian steppe1, 6, 9 or Armenia4, 9. Modern Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the Early Neolithic ancestry. Our results support the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean, before and after the time of its earliest civilizations.
    YES! Finally

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    Can someone post the Table I see two J2a's in the Minoan samples

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    Quote Originally Posted by Principe View Post
    Can someone post the Table I see two J2a's in the Minoan samples
    Here's that and some other figures:

     


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    Feel free to PM me if you want the full study. Granted, the supplementary materials are freely available.

    Quote Originally Posted by wandering_amorite View Post
    YES! Finally
    Rofl, you're the reason I found this thread and the study as well. Just came onto my profile page and saw you posting this and thought "What's he saying "YES! Finally" about?" rofl.

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    From the supplementary info:


    Individual Population Haplogroup
    I2495 Anatolia_BA J1a(xJ1a2b)
    I0070 Minoan_Lasithi J2a1d
    I0073 Minoan_Lasithi J2a1(xJ2a1a, J2a1b1a, J2a1b2, J2a1c, J2a1e, J2a1h, J2a1i)
    I9130 Minoan_Odigitria G2a2b2a(xG2a2b2a1b1a2a, G2a2b2a1c1a)
    I9041 Mycenaean J2a1(xJ2a1a, J2a1b1, J2a1b2, J2a1c, J2a1e, J2a1g, J2a1h, J2a1i)


    Discussion
    Our results highlight the importance of haplogroup J chromosomes during the Bronze Age in
    mainland Greece, Crete, and Anatolia, in contrast to the earlier Neolithic populations that were
    dominated by haplogroup G2a2. We cannot exclude an earlier presence of haplogroup J chromosomes
    in the region, but we note that in the large population sample from northwestern Anatolia (n=15
    males) we discovered a single J2a male which did not differ in his autosomal profile from other
    individuals in that population. By contrast 4 of 5 individuals from the Bronze Age in our study
    belonged to haplogroup J. Both Caucasus hunter-gatherers of Paleolithic-to-Mesolithic time depth
    belonged to haplogroup J, as did a Mesolithic and a Chalcolithic sample from Iran12 and a huntergatherer
    from northeast Russia. Haplogroup J (and especially J2) chromosomes are today common in
    present-day Anatolia and Greece (including the mainland and Crete). It was previously
    associated (based on its present-day phylogeography) with the diffusion of Neolithic farmers into
    Europe and its J2 and J1 clades with agriculturalist vs. pastoralist Neolithic pioneers (based on
    geographical/climatic correlations). Our results suggest a later westward dispersal than the Neolithic
    farming expansion and raise questions about the cause of this dispersal.
    More sampling of ancient populations is needed to establish the presence (and frequency) of
    haplogroup J in the Aegean and neighboring regions). However, (i) the great time depth of its
    presence in the Caucasus/Iran, together with (ii) its low frequency/absence in Neolithic
    Greece/Anatolia, and (iii) its appearance in the samples of our study, lead us to believe that it may
    have accompanied the genetic admixture (Neolithic Iran/Caucasus-hunter-gatherer related) that seems
    to have affected all populations in our study (Supplementary Information, section 2). Thus, the Ychromosome
    turnover that occurred in central Europe during the Bronze Age may also have
    occurred in the Aegean, with a different set of incoming lineages.
    Paternal: R1b-U152+ L2+ ZZ48+ FGC10543+, Pietro della Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: Haplogroup H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Asturias, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: Haplogroup J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: Haplogroup T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain

    Avatar: Raetian bronze votive, Fritzens-Sanzeno Culture VI-V c. BC, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy

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    Will be very curious to see what J2a subclades I0073 Minoan and I9041 Mycenaean will turn out to be. Its great to see J-M319 appear as it is very common today in Crete and is the largest J2a subclade in Crete.

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    The ADMIXTURE run as a PDF file:

    Link

    I could try and make it a jpeg or something but that'd take too much work and this is way simpler.

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    So no J2a1 mtDNA showing up? There was a Middle Kingdom mummy with J2a1a1 mtDNA, and someone suggested Minoan/Mycenaean as a source ... perhaps not.
    Last edited by Dewsloth; 08-02-2017 at 06:21 PM.
    R1b (aka M343) > M269 > L23 > L51 > L11 > P312 > DF19 > DF88 > FGC11833 > S4281 > S4268 > Z17112 (S17075-, L644-)

    Archaeological cousin: 6DRIF-23 of Driffield Terrace Roman Cemetery, York (Z17112+, S17075+, L644-)

    Known ancestors: Francis Cooke (I-M223/I2a2a) b. 1583; John Wing (U106) b. 1584; Richard Warren (M269Hidden Content ) b.c. 1578; Elizabeth Walker (Warren) (H1j mtDNA) b. 1583; John Mead b.c. 1634 (I2a1/P37.2)

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    Quote Originally Posted by R.Rocca View Post
    From the supplementary info:


    Individual Population Haplogroup
    I2495 Anatolia_BA J1a(xJ1a2b)
    I0070 Minoan_Lasithi J2a1d
    I0073 Minoan_Lasithi J2a1(xJ2a1a, J2a1b1a, J2a1b2, J2a1c, J2a1e, J2a1h, J2a1i)
    I9130 Minoan_Odigitria G2a2b2a(xG2a2b2a1b1a2a, G2a2b2a1c1a)
    I9041 Mycenaean J2a1(xJ2a1a, J2a1b1, J2a1b2, J2a1c, J2a1e, J2a1g, J2a1h, J2a1i)
    And yet our elusive E-V13...?

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    Another piece of evidence to support a steppe dispersal of PIE. Awesome to finally get some Minoan and Mycenaeans samples. I was having a crappy day until I saw this thread!

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