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DMXX
12-20-2012, 06:10 PM
Y-chromosome variation in Tajiks and Iranians
Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Wozniak M, Grzybowski T.

Link: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03014460.2012.747628



Aim: The purpose of this study was to characterize Y-chromosome diversity in Tajiks from Tajikistan and in Persians and Kurds from Iran.

Method: Y-chromosome haplotypes were identified in 40 Tajiks, 77 Persians and 25 Kurds, using 12 short tandem repeats (STR) and 18 binary markers.

Results: High genetic diversity was observed in the populations studied. Six of 12 haplogroups were common in Persians, Kurds and Tajiks, but only three haplogroups (G-M201, J-12f2 and L-M20) were the most frequent in all populations, comprising together 60% of the Y-chromosomes in the pooled data set. Analysis of genetic distances between Y-STR haplotypes revealed that the Kurds showed a great distance to the Iranian-speaking populations of Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. The presence of Indian-specific haplogroups L-M20, H1-M52 and R2a-M124 in both Tajik samples from Afghanistan and Tajikistan demonstrates an apparent genetic affinity between Tajiks from these two regions.

Conclusions: Despite the marked similarities between Y-chromosome gene pools of Iranian-speaking populations, there are differences between them, defined by many factors, including geographic and linguistic relationships.


http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-pbgP_5AOnms/UL8R8ENDD8I/AAAAAAAAH1I/9w_1e4eSRzI/s1600/iranian_tajik_kurd.png


First impressions;

Sample sizes are a drawback. I tend towards a figure of at least ~50 for cities and ~100 for representative ethnicities or nationalities.

Inadequate Y-STR profiling. The latest papers tend towards at least 17 (e.g. the recent paper on South India (http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?534-South-Indian-Y-Chromosomes&p=3133#post3133)). Thus, manual haplotype comparisons are made less effective.

Inadequate Y-SNP profiling. One does not need to look into the methodology to anticipate significant markers (such as R1b1a1-M73) when only R1b-M343 is listed.

Due to the small sample sizes, detailed conclusions beyond what current scientific literature has already shown us cannot be made. For instance, we see a west-east frequency gradient between Y-DNA Haplogroups E, G, J & T vs. H, L, Q, R1a1 & R2a.

Haplogroup I makes an appearance once more in the West Iranic-speaking world. Frustratingly, the lack of resolution beyond the M170 marker once more prevents us from learning anything about its' presence there.

The Kurdish results appear the most anomalous (i.e. Y-DNA C, J, R1a1) no doubt confounded by the small sample size. Kurds from Iran were shown to be fairly similar to Azeri Iranians in Grugni et al. (http://vaedhya.blogspot.co.uk/2012/07/interpreting-new-iranian-y-chromosomal.html), who in turn are closest to other Iranians (as per a recent paper from Tabriz, the largest Azeri Iranian city (http://ijb.nigeb.ac.ir/index.php/ijb/article/viewFile/746/319)). One would therefore expect more congruency between the Kurds and Persians here.

AJL
12-20-2012, 07:52 PM
Did they make an attempt to control for close/known relatives in the Kurdish sample? I'm guessing possibly not from the lower haplotype diversity.

We have a whole tonne of Kyrgyz guys in the R1a1a and Subclades Project that are probably all close paternal relatives: you might call this a "mountain founder effect." I think you see the same thing in the Caucasus and elsewhere.

DMXX
12-20-2012, 09:45 PM
Did they make an attempt to control for close/known relatives in the Kurdish sample? I'm guessing possibly not from the lower haplotype diversity.

We have a whole tonne of Kyrgyz guys in the R1a1a and Subclades Project that are probably all close paternal relatives: you might call this a "mountain founder effect." I think you see the same thing in the Caucasus and elsewhere.

I am blocked by a paywall as my institutional access doesn't cover it. There's nothing in the Abstract to indicate that. That being said, you will note that the STR haplotype count for each population is very roughly equivalent across the board relative to the sample sizes. So, it looks like the Kurds are slightly less diverse only when compared to the Persians and Tajiks. No doubt the diversity perception would change if more individuals were tested and other populations included (i.e. Iraqi Arabs, Anatolian Turks, Armenians).

You definitely see the same thing in Afghan Pashtun R1a1a. It's also observed in a specific subclade of Ossetian G2a. Could we have just coined some genetic genealogy lingo with the "mountain founder"/"mountaineer" effect? :D

AJL
12-20-2012, 11:46 PM
I am blocked by a paywall as my institutional access doesn't cover it. There's nothing in the Abstract to indicate that. That being said, you will note that the STR haplotype count for each population is very roughly equivalent across the board relative to the sample sizes. So, it looks like the Kurds are slightly less diverse only when compared to the Persians and Tajiks. No doubt the diversity perception would change if more individuals were tested and other populations included (i.e. Iraqi Arabs, Anatolian Turks, Armenians).

You definitely see the same thing in Afghan Pashtun R1a1a. It's also observed in a specific subclade of Ossetian G2a. Could we have just coined some genetic genealogy lingo with the "mountain founder"/"mountaineer" effect? :D

Hm, maybe we could write this up: I'm trying to think of some sort of pun with "allele peak" for the title. :)

newtoboard
03-03-2013, 05:13 PM
Any theories on the ydna I?

DMXX
03-29-2013, 07:51 PM
Any theories on the ydna I?

I find it unlikely to be derived from Andronovo given it is absent in the Altai and further afield, but stranger things have happened in the world of genetics.

My personal theories are that the Y-DNA I observed in Central Asia are that they made their way eastwards via the Persian empires. I have the Silk Road firmly in mind here. A comparison with Armenian, Anatolian Turkish and Kurdish Y-DNA I may prove useful here.

newtoboard
06-07-2013, 09:30 PM
I find it unlikely to be derived from Andronovo given it is absent in the Altai and further afield, but stranger things have happened in the world of genetics.

My personal theories are that the Y-DNA I observed in Central Asia are that they made their way eastwards via the Persian empires. I have the Silk Road firmly in mind here. A comparison with Armenian, Anatolian Turkish and Kurdish Y-DNA I may prove useful here.

Bottleneck in Andronovo?

Even then the origins of Y-DNA I in Kurds and Armenians is mysterious. I get the feeling it entered their gene pools from Europe recently. Maybe with Cimmerian raids?

Ali16
05-18-2016, 01:01 PM
My theory on I is from the Islamic Empire in Spain.

gravetti
05-18-2016, 05:29 PM
There is I*-M170 among Nanai people in Gorin area of the Kabarovsk territory.

THE NANAI CLAN SAMAR: THE STRUCTURE OF GENE POOL BASED ON Y-CHROMOSOME MARKERS

Members of the Nanai clan Samar reside in the Gorin area of the Khabarovsk Territory. Their gene pool was studied using the SNP markers of the Y-chromosome. The major haplogroup, occurring in more than 83% of clansmen, is the northern Eurasian haplogroup N1c1-M178. Four other haplogroups are С*-М130, I*-M170, J2a1а-M47, and O2-P31. The most frequent haplogroup, N1c1-М178, indicates mostly Tungus origin of the Samar clan; other haplogroups detected by complete sequencing, such as the minor haplogroup C3*-M130, reveal ties with native populations of the Amur basin. Genetic distances and their multidimensional scaling demonstrate marked affinities of Samar clansmen with Yakuts, Khakas, and certain groups of Buryats, suggesting a common origin. Nanai of other regions are much further from the Samar.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1563011015001294

Nanai people

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanai_people

https://www.google.se/maps/place/Chabarovskij+kraj,+Ryssland/@53.2568101,120.920401,4z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x5eb7ba84e6f50047:0x3d95b 5be6f643c19!8m2!3d50.5888431!4d135?hl=sv