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Mac von Frankfurt
09-05-2015, 09:08 PM
How was Y-chromosomal Adamís Y-DNA determined? Is it constant or does it changes as more men are tested and deeper testing is performed?

MacUalraig
09-05-2015, 09:26 PM
How was Y-chromosomal Adamís Y-DNA determined? Is it constant or does it changes as more men are tested and deeper testing is performed?

The root was shifted back a couple of years ago based on testing of an African American, I think his name was Perry? Bonnie Shrack is the expert on it and there is some further sampling going on in Cameroon.

http://www.dienekes.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/a00-at-ftdna2012-history-in-making.html

https://experiment.com/users/Bonnie_S

Mac von Frankfurt
09-05-2015, 09:34 PM
Thanks for that link. I can find information on the age and recent developments but I cannot find a coherent explanation of how the Y-DNA is determined. Is it some kind of humongous reverse superposition Sudoku puzzle? Google is failing me on this one.

Edit: I did find this article through the link you gave me.

http://haplogroup-a.com/Ancient-Root-AJHG2013.pdf

paulgill
09-05-2015, 09:44 PM
How was Y-chromosomal Adam’s Y-DNA determined? Is it constant or does it changes as more men are tested and deeper testing is performed?

They got it from Aliens from 1947 UFO crash.

Mac von Frankfurt
09-05-2015, 09:57 PM
They got it from Aliens from 1947 UFO crash.

How did they know the alien was ancestral and not derived? Maybe the alien was Adam's prodigal son.

Mac von Frankfurt
09-06-2015, 07:15 AM
I found this for mtDNA. Still looking for an explanation for the reference for Y-DNA.

A ďCopernicanĒ Reassessment of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Tree from its Root

Mutational events along the human mtDNA phylogeny are traditionally identified relative to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence, a contemporary European sequence published in 1981. This historical choice is a continuous source of inconsistencies, misinterpretations, and errors in medical, forensic, and population genetic studies. Here, after having refined the human mtDNA phylogeny to an unprecedented level by adding information from 8,216 modern mitogenomes, we propose switching the reference to a Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence, which was identified by considering all available mitogenomes from Homo neanderthalensis. This ďCopernicanĒ reassessment of the human mtDNA tree from its deepest root should resolve previous problems and will have a substantial practical and educational influence on the scientific and public perception of human evolution by clarifying the core principles of common ancestry for extant descendants.

http://www.cell.com/AJHG/abstract/S0002-9297(12)00146-2

VinceT
09-06-2015, 10:33 AM
It is progressively being researched and deduced from all available extant Y-DNA genomes, using Chimp and Bonobo Y-DNA as out-group references. Unfortunately Neanderthal or Denisovan Y-DNA genomes have not yet been found to use in lieu of the Chimp and Bonobo references, but the haplogroup A00 samples which Matthew and Bonnie are collecting for their A00 research project will help resolve the problem a bit better, once the A00 Y-chromosomes have been identified and sequenced.

Even then, establishing a 100% reliable ancestral human sequence is impossible with current technology. The Y-chromosome is roughly 3500 times larger than the mtDNA genome, over half of it is completely unknown, and another quarter of it is highly similar to itself, the X-chromosome, and the other autosomes.

With the significant time-span separating haplogroup A0 and A00, the tendency of extremely ancient DNA to degrade, and the problem presented by the tendency of self-similar regions to overwrite each other, we may never know the precise sequence of the true ancestral human sequence.

razyn
09-06-2015, 11:03 AM
Matthew Fomine Forka collected 204 DNA samples from males in Cameroon. Many governmental and some tribal obstacles had to be overcome, and the sampling itself required him to visit some rather remote places to swab residents of those villages. The collection process was completed about two weeks ago, I believe because Matthew had used all the collection kits he had. After more paperwork the samples were just mailed out of the country Friday (Sept. 4, 2015), to Thomas and Astrid Krahn's YSEQ lab in Berlin for testing.

I have enjoyed informal reports on these ongoing developments via their Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/A00.Cameroon.Project

Mac von Frankfurt
09-06-2015, 06:41 PM
Thanks to VinceT and razyn...just what I was looking for.